26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017)
Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017
Sunday, June 18th - Club ISCTE - 17:00 - 18:30
- Social programme I
Sunday, June 18th - Club ISCTE - 18:30 - 20:45
- Social programme II (extra)
Monday, June 19th - Conference hall - 08:30 - 09:00
- Registration
Monday, June 19th - Auditorium #2 - 09:00 - 09:40
- Opening ceremony
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Dr. Rui Gaspar & Dr. Sílvia Luís, Organizing Committee of the 26th SRA-Europe Annual Conference/Meeting
Dr. Michael Siegrist, President - Society for Risk Analysis-Europe
Dr. Margaret M. MacDonell, President - Society for Risk Analysis
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Monday, June 19th - Auditorium #2 - 09:40 - 10:10
- Prof. Gerd Gigerenzer - Risk Literacy & Health
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Efficient and affordable health care requires both informed patients and doctors. Yet studies show that most doctors do not understand health statistics. Health organizations and industries exploit this innumeracy to make small benefits of treatments or screenings appear big and their harms appear small. I will talk about techniques for helping doctors and patients make sense of medical evidence. Promoting risk literacy in health could save more lives than expensive screening programs and Big Data.
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Monday, June 19th - Auditorium #2 - 10:10 - 10:30
- Keynote 1 Q&A
Monday, June 19th - Auditorium #2 - 11:00 - 12:30
Symposium - European perceptions of climate change (EPCC)
EUROPEAN PERCEPTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE (EPCC)
Nick Pidgeon
Cardiff University, CF10 3AT, Cardiff, United Kingdom

The European Perceptions of Climate Change (EPCC) project is a major risk perceptions study supported by the Joint Programme Initiative on Climate Change (JPI-Climate). In this symposium we will bring together leading risk perception researchers representing the four European institutes involved in designing and conducting the EPCC survey (the Universities of Cardiff, Stuttgart, Bergen, the Rokkan Centre in Norway and Symlog Institute in Paris) to discuss different findings from this project. Each author in this symposium will present a different facet and analysis of the data gathered. Although we now have considerable evidence on public climate risk perceptions from multiple individual in-nation studies stretching back some 30 years, there is far less good quality comparative and cross-cultural data on how perceptions and their antecedents vary across different countries. Data collection for the EPCC survey of climate and energy risk perceptions took place in four European countries in June 2016 with a total sample size of 1000 nationally representative respondents collected in each of Great Britain, Germany, Norway and France using a multi-item survey instrument. The value of such a comparative approach is that important cross-nation differences in e.g. climate scepticism, the psychological distance of climate change risk, and political orientation can be explored together with key aspects of national cultural and energy systems contexts that might influence both climate risk perceptions and people’s preferences for energy and other policy responses.


Between scientific ‘facts’ and ‘debates’: How perceived scientific consensus predicts beliefs about anthropogenic climate in four EU countries
Raquel Bertoldo 2, Claire Mays 1, Marc Poumadère 1
1 Institut Symlog, 75005, Paris, France
2 Aix Marseille Univ, UMR ESPACE, CNRS, 13545, Aix-en-Provence, France

Despite the established scientific consensus on the existence of anthropogenic climate change, uncertainties endure as to future outcomes of mitigation and adaptation measures. These are normal epistemic uncertainties, but in some quarters appear to have been ‘translated’ as uncertainties as to the very reality of anthropogenic climate change. Our study examines to what extent the perception of a scientific consensus around the existence of climate change (CC) influences beliefs about CC's existence – does it exist? – and causes – is it anthropogenic? or natural?. We also tested whether such interpretations of scientific consensus are moderated by participants’ (a) political orientation – left vs. right – and /or (b) intuitive models of science – traditional vs. Kuhnian (see Rabinovich & Morton, 2012). These questions were analyzed through the Joint Program Initiative "European Perceptions of CC" survey conducted in June 2016 with representative samples in France, Germany, Norway, and the UK (N = 4,048; Steentjes et al., 2017). Results show that in line with the literature, perception of scientific consensus overall predicts beliefs about CC causes and existence. The relation between the perception of ‘scientific consensus’ and beliefs about ‘climate change causes’ is indeed moderated by respondents' intuitive model of science in the UK and in Germany – specifically, this relation is stronger among participants adopting a traditional model than those adopting a Kuhnian model of science. Political orientation was not a good predictor or moderator of beliefs about the existence of CC causes or its causes. These results provide important comparative data about how climate science is understood in Europe, and moreover, provide survey-based evidence for Rabinovich and Morton's ‘beliefs about science’ model. Our results also underline the importance of carefully addressing the models of science that are present, but often implicit, in climate science communications.


The role of social norms in shaping individual and national responses to climate change: A comparison across four European countries
Katharine Steentjes 1, Nick Pidgeon 1, Wouter Poortinga 1, Gisela Böhm 2, Raquel Bertoldo 3
1 Cardiff University, CF10 3AT, Cardiff, United Kingdom
2 University of Bergen, 5020, Bergen, Norway
3 Insitut SYMLOG, 75005, Paris, France

The European Perception of Climate Change (EPCC) project offers a unique opportunity to gain insights into the social processes that shape public perceptions of climate change, support for related policies and personal action. The cross-national survey, conducted in Germany, France, Norway and the United Kingdom allows us to examine social constructs as individual level predictors and as predictors of between-country differences. A vast body of literature established that individual beliefs and actions are influenced by what the social environment approves of (injunctive norms) and by what others are doing (descriptive norms). In addition to using these two traditional measures of social norms (Cialdini, 1990), we ask respondents about their willingness to enforce these norms. This willingness to confront other is a reflection of underlying norms and also a process of change (Swim, 2013). The additional measure of interpersonal activism helps us to capture multiple facets of social norms and thereby broaden our understanding of how norms shape public perceptions of climate change. The survey was conducted in June 2016 in the UK (n=1033), Germany (n=1001), France (n=1010), and Norway (n=1004). The interviews were conducted via telephone in Norway and face to face in Germany, UK and France. The questionnaire consisted of 71 closed and three open questions to measure climate change belief, energy preferences, policy support and related psychological constructs. Stepwise regression analyses per country show that injunctive and descriptive norms predict individuals’ willingness to reduce energy (to help mitigate climate change); when tested alongside other predictors such as political values, environmental identity and concern about climate change. The analyses of peoples’ willingness to engage in acts of interpersonal activism reveal that concern about climate change, environmental identity and injunctive norms directly predict respondents willingness to act, while descriptive norms have an indirect effect on interpersonal activism by increasing feelings of collective efficacy (for UK, Germany and Norway). Furthermore, multiple mediation analyses demonstrate that different levels of perceived social norms associated with climate change, also (partly) explain the higher support for mitigation policies and the Paris Climate agreement in France and Norway compared to Germany and the UK.  The results of the cross national EPCC survey provide evidence for the relevance of social norms shaping individual responses to climate change as well as being able to explain national differences in policy support between four major European countries. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings will be discussed. 


Storms, ice and conspiracies: Explaining what people in four European countries associate with climate change
Endre Tvinnereim 1, Claire Mays 3, Annika Arnold 2, Katharine Steentjes 4, Wouter Poortinga 4
1 Uni Research Rokkan Centre, Bergen, Norway, 5020, Bergen, Norway
2 University of Stuttgart, 70049, Stuttgart, Germany
3 Symlog, 75005, Paris, France
4 Cardiff University, CF10 3AT, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Different framings of climate change abound, and there is no definitive way to present the "facts" about this global issue. Rather, climate change raises associations with diverse themes such as geophysical sciences, nature, jobs, taxes and ethics. Studies of public perceptions and attitudes in relation to climate change touch on these issues and more, but rarely permit participants to draw attention to the aspect they themselves find the most important.

Recent advances in quantitative text analysis have made open-ended survey questions a more useful tool in overcoming this problem. This paper analyses open-ended responses to two interrelated question: “What comes to mind when you hear the words ‘climate change’?” and “What do you think will be the most important effect of climate change on [your country]?" We collect data on these questions in four countries: Germany, France, the UK and Norway. We use structural topic modelling of word frequencies from verbatim textual responses to induce topics such as melting ice, future generations, changes to the seasonal cycle and carbon taxes. Models are run both on the individual languages and on statements from all four countries, using machine-assisted translation of the most frequent terms.

Based on earlier work, we hypothesise that what people associate with climate change relates to demographic factors (notably age and gender), political/ideological placement and recent events. Notably, we expect that younger people will emphasise effects on humans, all else equal, whereas older people will emphasise the physical aspects of climate change (glaciers, ice melt, sea-level rise). Given that the four countries display great variation in their electricity production systems, we also hypothesise that respondents in countries with high emissions from the power sector (Germany, UK), will emphasise electricity emissions and coal more than those in countries with lower emissions from the same sector (France, Norway). We validate the computer-generated categorisations in two ways: First, team members independently assess computer-generated sets of topics, using the criteria of cross-topic completeness and intra-topic coherence. Second, we compare our sets of computer-generated topics to categories produced by human coders using a coding scheme with 58 different topics.


Which emotions do people feel in response to climate change? A comparison across four European countries
Gisela Böhm 1, Rouven Doran 1, Claire Mays 2, Katharine Steentjes 3, Endre Tvinnereim 4, Hans-Rüdiger Pfister 5
1 University of Bergen, 5015, Bergen, Norway
2 SYMLOG, 75005, Paris, France
3 Cardiff University, CF10 3AT, Cardiff, United Kingdom
4 Uni Research Rokkan Center, 5015, Bergen, Norway
5 Leuphana University Lüneburg, 21335, Lüneburg, Germany

The current paper presents an international comparison of emotional reactions to climate change. Emotions are a strong motivational force and influence both judgments and behaviors in manifold ways. The present paper draws on appraisal theories of emotion according to which emotions are based on specific cognitive appraisals of the situation. The present study compares the following four specific emotions that we have shown in our previous research to be important in the context of environmental risks (e.g., Böhm, 2003; Böhm & Pfister, 2000, 2005, 2015): hope, fear, outrage, and guilt. We expect the following relationships between emotions and underlying cognitive appraisals: Both hope and fear are assumed to indicate that a person focuses on potential future consequences. While hope implies that negative consequences appear avoidable or positive consequences achievable, fear anticipates exclusively negative consequences. Outrage and guilt are hypothesized to be based on moral evaluations; outrage implying that others are seen as culprits whereas guilt results from self-blame.

This paper uses survey data collected in the ‘European Perceptions of Climate Change’ project using representative national samples (each approximately N = 1000) from Great Britain, Germany, Norway, and France.

Results show that Norway and UK on the one hand and Germany and France on the other hand show similar profiles of emotional responses. While in Norway and UK hope is the most intense emotional response to climate change, fear and outrage dominate in France and Germany. Across all countries, outrage is the most and guilt the least intense reported emotion. With respect to underlying cognitive appraisals, we largely find the expected relationships. Hope decreases with increasing severity of anticipated climate change impacts. Hope increases with beliefs that imply that the problem may be solved, such as perceived collective efficacy in tackling climate change and perceived climate engagement in one’s social environment. Fear is mainly related to the severity of anticipated climate change impacts and the personal relevance of these impacts. Having moral concerns with respect to climate change is a strong predictor of all emotions.

Results document the important role and cultural diversity of emotional responses to climate change and support appraisal theoretical approaches to explaining emotional reactions. The implications of the findings for engaging the public with the issue of climate change in varying socio-political and cultural contexts will be discussed.


Between high risk and high climate reward: European percpetions of nuclear energy.
Annika Arnold, Marco Sonnberger, Michael Ruddat, Dirk Scheer
University of Stuttgart - Center for Interdisciplinary Risk and Innovation Studies (ZIRIUS), 70174, Stuttgart, Germany

Between high risk and high climate reward – European perceptions of nuclear energy

Focus of the contribution

The proposed paper will present data from a representative survey, conducted in UK, France, Germany, and Norway, eliciting European citizens’ attitudes towards nuclear energy (project: European Perceptions of Climate Change and Energy Preferences; data collection in June 2016). The focus lies on the analysis of the relation between concerns about climate change and subjective evaluation of nuclear energy as part of the resp. national energy mix.

Background

Climate change is one of the main drivers behind the efforts for a transformation towards a sustainable energy system (“Energiewende”).

In the 2015 Paris-Agreement, the 197 parties to the UNFCCC agreed to enhance efforts to hold the increase in the global average temperature below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The European Union addresses this issue in its European Energy Roadmap 2050, with its aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% by the year 2050. One proposed path is to increase the share of renewable energy consumption by at least 27%.

However, energy production is not only a concern of low CO2 emissions. It also needs to respond to issues of a stable, secure, and affordable energy supply. Renewable energies are confronted with perceived and factual concerns about their ability to provide energy extensively, permanently, and without impacts on higher energy prices.

From a technological standpoint and a perspective focused solely on lowering CO2 emissions, nuclear energy seems to be a solution, that fulfills the social and economic needs of the energy consumption and supply while at the same time allowing to decrease CO2 emissions from energy production. But nuclear energy is, not least since the events of Fukushima, a contested topic in the public sphere.

Presented results:

Our data show a majority of citizens perceive nuclear energy as unacceptable in all four countries. When asked, if people support a national energy mix including nuclear power, Norwegian and German respondents notably spoke out against (Norway 62%, Germany: 57%). Furthermore, our analysis shows a correlation between higher climate change concern and a low approval of nuclear power.

The proposed contribution to the 2017 SRA Europe Conference will describe these results, the procedures and conclusions in detail.

Monday, June 19th - Auditorium #3 - 11:00 - 12:30
Symposium - Challenges and Opportunities for Vaccination Uptake (Part 1)
Addressing Challenges and Opportunities for Vaccination Uptake (Part 1)
Josh Greenberg
School of Journalism and Communication Carleton University Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1S 5B6, Ottawa, Canada

Vaccination is one of the greatest medical achievements in modern history. Prior to the introduction of mass immunization, diseases such as smallpox, measles, and polio, devastated families and communities, not only because of their high mortality rates but also due to their potential life-altering complications. Yet, despite the consensus that vaccination is a vital public health tool, growing numbers of parents express anxiety and concern about the possible risks of vaccines and choose to refuse or delay vaccination for their children. Access to vaccines also remains an issue of concern: even in advanced liberal democracies, some segments of the population experience disproportionately higher exposure to vaccine preventable illnesses.

 

This symposium brings together several papers across two panels to explore questions about risk communication and vaccine hesitancy, access and uptake. Collectively, both panels are concerned with growing rates of vaccine refusal and delay, and recognize the need to improve uptake of childhood immunization worldwide. They also share an understanding that more rigorous research is needed to understand what factors drive vaccine acceptance and access, and of the importance of developing effective, evidence-driven interventions using risk communication.

 

Panel 1 sets a context for understanding vaccine hesitancy as a sociocultural phenomenon and policy dilemma. Josh Greenberg examines news coverage of the Disneyland measles outbreak to show how media discourse shapes how we experience, understand, and imagine our shared vulnerability to infection and disease. His interest is less in how individuals make decisions about vaccination, than how outbreak narratives inform the constitution and circulation of public understandings about vaccination and disease. Frederic Bouder reminds us of the important role of risk communication research in understanding how people assess the risks of harm from disease against the potential harm of a vaccine. Yet, he suggests that we need to better understand how the lessons of risk communication research have been used by healthcare professionals and informed public policy. Cindy Jardine examines Canadian policies and procedures shaping access to health services, immunization costs and risk communication. Her focus on immigrant and refugee specific policies is important given the higher rates of vaccine preventable diseases for these groups. Finally, Eve Dubé presents findings from a study of risk perception among vaccine hesitant parents in Canada. Exploring tensions between rational approaches to risk perception and those informed by theories of affect, she shows that individuals assess vaccine risk in ways that reflect their cultural, emotional, and social worlds.


Measles, Mickey and the Media - Disneyland, Vaccination and the Social Construction of Risk
Josh Greenberg
School of Journalism and Communication Carleton University Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1S 5B6, Ottawa, Canada

On January 7, 2015, California health officials announced that an international visitor to the state’s iconic Disneyland theme park had been linked to at least seven cases of measles, in addition to two likely cases in Utah. Two days later, five more California residents received confirmations of positive diagnoses; and over the next several weeks, clusters of new cases cropped up across the U.S., each generating waves of news headlines, collective hand-wringing and political debate. By early February, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 140 connected measles cases had been identified across more than a dozen U.S. states. The outbreak would eventually spread to Mexico and then Canada, where it set off a separate cluster of infections leading to more than 130 cases in the Lanaudière region near Montreal. 

 

This paper examines Canadian media coverage of the Disneyland outbreak as a case for understanding how health risk events are translated from conditions into problems that magnify moral and political concerns. If, as Gerlach and Hamilton (2014) argue, pandemic culture is shaped by “the stories we tell about our vulnerability,” media coverage provides necessary grist for how we experience, understand, make sense of and imagine our collective vulnerability to infection and disease.  In particular, we examine the major narratives of the outbreak, discuss how parents who reject or express worries about vaccination were depicted, and trace which solutions were presented to address the problem of vaccine preventable disease. Our objective is not to identify the effects of media coverage on individual or collective decision-making about risk, but to account for how outbreak narratives inform the constitution and circulation of public understandings of vaccination and disease risk.


Risk perception, trust and vaccination decisions
Eve Dubé
Université Laval - Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, G1E 7G9, Quebec, Canada

Vaccination is often described as one of the greatest achievements of public health. While the scientific and medical consensus on the benefits of vaccination is clear and unambiguous, a growing proportion of Canadians is sceptical about vaccination. In Canada, fewer than 5% of parents refuse all vaccines for their children, but up to 35% are hesitant about vaccination. Vaccine-hesitant (VH) parents may refuse some vaccines, but agree to others; they may delay vaccines or accept them according to the recommended schedule, but feel unsure about their decisions. Risk perception is a well recognized determinant in vaccine decision making. Two dimensions are usually emphasized: perceived risks of vaccine-preventable diseases can foster vaccine acceptance whereas perceived risks of vaccines can contribute to vaccine refusal. Sadly, this rational approach to risk perception and health decision-making does not reflect reality as other factors come into play. Vaccination decisions are much more linked with how people feel about the facts than to the facts themselves – even if they do correctly understand these facts. Judgements about risks are intuitive, automatic and often unconscious. Many studies have also shown that lack of trust in vaccine information, more than lack of vaccine information in itself, is associated with vaccine hesitancy. Lack of trust is sometimes associated with perceived lack of balance in the information transmitted by healthcare providers and public health authorities. Further, individuals are “cognitive misers”, collecting only as much information as they think is needed to reach a decision.

 

Using results of different studies conducted among Canadian parents of young children, this paper focuses on risk perception and its impact on vaccination acceptance, hesitancy and refusal. We will highlight that risk perception about vaccines among lay people are based on an “uncertainties and ambiguities” approach where doubts remain even in the face of empirical evidence. Individuals assess vaccine risk in different and unique ways that reflect their cultural, emotional, social and political worlds. In the context of a globalizing mass media, the awareness of certain risks may have changed, but people continue to understand and negotiate risks in localized contexts


Effects of Policies and Practices on Immigrant and Refugee Immunization Access and Uptake
Cindy Jardine 1, Stephanie Kowal 2, S. Michelle Driedger 3
1 University of the Fraser Valley, V2R 0N3, Chilliwack, Canada
2 University of Alberta, T6G 1C9, Edmonton, Canada
3 University of Manitoba, R3E 0W3, Winnipeg, Canada

Immigrant and refugee populations are often particularly susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases because they may be lacking adequate immunization and/or may be more vulnerable to disease.  Immunization access and uptake for these populations are known to be influenced by different government policies and procedures.  These include access to health services, immunization costs, and communication (including provision of appropriate and accessible information).  Furthermore, policies and procedures to monitor immigrant and refugee immunization coverage are important in identifying specific under- and un-immunized populations. Past and present immigrant and refugee specific policies and practices in Canada were assessed against known information on vaccine coverage and incidence of vaccine preventable diseases, and the factors influencing immunization decision-making, in these populations.  Canada has no current mechanism to monitor immigrant vaccine coverage. However, one study found that more than one-third of new immigrants and refugees were susceptible to measles, mumps and rubella. Rates of vaccine preventable diseases for immigrants are significantly higher than in the native-born population, and tend to increase with years in Canada. Although knowledge of factors related to immigrant and refugee immunization decision making is limited, a study of immigrant mothers in Canada found that access to health care professionals and appropriate immunization information were critical to mothers and their children being immunized.  Based on this information, a 2012 Canadian government decision to limit health care benefits for immigrant and refugee populations posed a major barrier to immunization access and uptake.  This decision was overturned in 2016. Immunization schedules differ between provinces and territories, and not all immunizations are publicly funded.  Some efforts are made to provide immunization information in multiple languages – for example, A Parent’s Guide to Vaccination provided by the Public Health Agency of Canada is available in more than 13 languages.  These results and others provide valuable insights into the effects of various government decisions, policies and procedures as barriers or facilitators to immigrant and refugee immunization access and uptake, and evidence on means of improving immunization for these populations.


Risk communication of Vaccines in the 21st century: where are we?
Frederic Bouder
Maastricht University, 6211SZ, Maastricht, Netherlands

Recent outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases (e.g. measles) as well practical obstacles to eradication (e.g. polio) have underscored the need to improve immunization rates internationally while paying more attention to the factors that drive vaccine acceptance, hesitancy an opposition of patients, healthcare professionals and policy makers. Vaccination decisions are influenced by both the availability of adequate and appropriate information and risk perceptions (including potential harms from the disease and from the vaccine). In the last decade of the 20st, breakthroughs in Risk communication research played a pivotal role in understanding how people view the competing risks of harm from the disease (to themselves and society) and potential harm from the vaccine. Have these lessons been taken on board by healthcare professionals and policy makers? Is it time to review how conditions may have changed and how vaccine risk communication should be (re)-conceptualised to inform policy and deliver more effective immunization ? This paper will offer a systematic review of the state of knowledge and suggest promising avenues for the future drawing on concrete examples of recent successes and failures.

Monday, June 19th - Room #1 - 11:00 - 12:30
Symposium - The Geography of Litter
The Geography of Litter: Investigating chewing gum to understand the behavioural and spatial triggers that drive litter culture
Randa Kachef 1, Ullrika Sahlin 2
1 King's College London, SE229PJ, London, United Kingdom
2 Lund University, 22362, Lund, Sweden

For many, litter is simply an unsightly repercussion of urbanisation, however, research tells us that litter has a wide range of negative secondary effects; from increased crime rates to water contamination. Past research on reducing littering behaviours have focused on addressing litter by crafting precise messaging and providing incentives to clean up already littered items. The issue of litter however has steadily increased since the 1960’s and more research is needed to effectively mitigate the many risks it poses to society and the environment. The Geography of Litter seeks to understand litter by focusing on space and time characteristics in order to break the cycle of littering. Due to it’s persistent nature, chewing gum litter is the focus of these studies, where it’s presence is considered an indicator of wider littering habits, often promoting the act by simply being present.

The Geography of Litter will explore the presence and influence of chewing gum on litter through game theory (Ullrika Sahlin, Lund University) and geospatial analysis (Randa Kachef, King’s College London).


The Chewing Gum Effect – A spatial approach to understanding litter
Randa Kachef 1, Narushige Shiode 1, Ullrika Sahlin 2
1 King's College London, WC2R2LS, London, United Kingdom
2 Lund University, 22362, Lund, Sweden

Few can say they are not aware of litter, in fact most in the UK admit they do not enjoy being in a littered environment. The presence of litter, as unsightly as it is, has many unseen repercussions on the environment, communities, public funds and social behaviour.

Prior research on littering behaviours and patterns has aimed to test the effectiveness of 1) communication 2) threats and tariffs and 3) campaigns to encourage litter clean up. These studies however have not proven a long term or consistent solution, and litter continues to fail to enter proper waste management systems.

The purpose of this unique study is to correct these shortcomings and to approach litter through spatial analysis. It aims to test a theory that, due to its non-transient and persistent nature, chewing gum litter acts as a permanent invitation to litter, or at least acts as an indicator of wider littering behaviours. To explore this theory, 12 litter counts in high footfall areas were conducted across three UK cities. This data was analysed in GIS to determine correlations between litter and building use type, and Pearson’s r was used to determine correlations between litter types. A fourth study was conducted in London to determine chewing gum deposition rates with and without the prior presence of gum.

Through quantitative methods this study has identified distribution patterns that have informed effective anti-littering campaigns and bin placement in London, Manchester and Birmingham. 


Litter bit of this, a litter bit of that - optimal chewy cleaning strategies to reduce litter
Ullrika Sahlin 1, Randa Kachef 2, Peter Olsson 1
1 Lund University, 223 62, Lund, Sweden
2 King's College London, WC2R 2LS, London, United Kingdom

Litter in urban areas is an unnecessary burden to municipal budgets and is done through both intentional and unintentional means. Past research tells us that the presence of litter on streets encourages further littering behaviours. If so, regular street cleansings would reduce the deposition rate of litter. Litter is a direct cost to municipalities and can also be seen to cause loss of esthetic and moral values to its citizens and visitors. Here we search for optimal strategies for when to clean urban areas from litter in order to minimise the total costs of litter to a municipality. The cleaning and deposition of litter is formulated as a Markov Decision Process. We use chewing gum as an indicator for litter. Optimal strategies are represented with different budget constraints.


Challenges in assessing metal exposure around contaminated sites – the example of local vegetable consumption in the Swedish glassworks district
Anna Augustsson, Terese Uddh-Söderberg, Stina Alriksson, Monika Filipsson
Linnaeus University, Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Kalmar, Sweden, 39182, Kalmar, Sweden

Understanding how people are exposed to pollutants in contaminated environments is one of the key issues related to the protection of public health. In this study, metal exposure is characterized for residents around glassworks sites in southeastern Sweden, where arsenic, cadmium and lead in soil at and around the glassworks properties have been measured in concentrations more than 1000 times the Swedish EPA limits. Exposure to the metals in question has been associated with a number of adverse health effects, and previous studies among glass factory workers have shown increased cancer risks, generally ascribed to lead exposure. Ongoing investigations in the Swedish glassworks region indicate that the increased cancer risk applies to local residents too, and not only to glass factory workers. To determine whether metal exposure is a probable key controlling factor for an observed negative effect in a population – such as the increased cancer incidence in the Swedish glassworks region- the total intake via different exposure routes needs to be characterized (via ingestion of local crops and drinking water, inhalation of dust etc.). Here we present some of the major difficulties in assessing exposure and risks for residents living near contaminated sites, where i) exposure may occur through various routes, and ii) the characterization of variables affecting exposure is challenging due to a high temporal and spatial variability.

As an example we focus on exposure through consumption of homegrown vegetables, wild berries and mushrooms and show how it may vary– both for residents in potential exposure areas (in households <500 m from one of 22 different glassworks) and for people in reference households (> 2 km to the nearest glassworks site). Both deterministic and probabilistic assessments were performed, based on metal concentration data for 15 common homegrown crops and wild berries/mushrooms, and data on the consumption of homegrown items. Although metal concentrations were generally higher in the items grown around glassworks sites than in reference areas, the results are not conclusive and the differences are often small, confirming that high total concentrations in soil are not always reflected in the crops grown therein. Lead is the metal where the risk of adverse health effects is considered the lowest. For As and Cd there is a risk of an excess intake via the homegrown vegetables exposure route for some consumers, but this applies to the reference group as well as to residence around contaminated sites.

Monday, June 19th - Room #2 - 11:00 - 12:30
Symposium - Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Systemic Risk Research
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Systemic Risk Research
Pia-Johanna Schweizer
Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies Potsdam, 14467, Potsdam, Germany

Despite extensive scientific progress in the field of risk analysis in risk analysis, broad consensus has not been established on fundamental concepts and principles. The field of risk analysis still suffers from a lack of clarity with regard to many key concepts. This lack of conceptual clarity is especially striking with regard to systemic risks. The Project Systemic Risks at the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam, Germany aims at clarifying key concepts and assumptions of risk research.  On the basis of our research, we claim that systemic risks are characterized by a high degree of complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity in addition of spreading out to other risk areas and risk arenas. Second, systemic risks are transboundary and global in nature. They transgress nation states and call for international cooperation. This characteristic becomes especially apparent with regard to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Third, although systemic risks originate in one subsystem of society or the environment, the ripple effects of these risks affect all social subsystems, such as the economy, politics, and civil society. These multi-causal interdependencies pose great governance challenges and lead to the fact that systemic risks are unmanageable by single organizations. Fourth, future technological and societal developments are non-linear. Science struggles to identify tipping points of technological and social trends. Furthermore, systemic risks are socially constructed and amplified via risk perception and social mobilization. Framing of risks and social acceptability are of essence. Therefore, systemic risks require a more holistic approach to hazard identification, risk assessment and risk management because investigating systemic risks goes beyond the usual agent-consequence analysis. Consequentially, the analysis of systemic risks ought to focus on interdependencies and ripple and spill-over effects that initiate impact cascades between otherwise unrelated risk clusters. Our understanding of systemic risk spans various scientific disciplines. The complex structure of triggers and consequences demands new efforts for modeling and simulating systemic risks. Therefore, we look into scientific fields that have accumulated experience in modeling complex and dynamic structures and processes, i.e. evolutionary economics, thermodynamics and dynamic systems analysis.  Our aim is to identify typical patterns of emerging structures that can be applied to improve our understanding and facilitate quantitative modeling of systemic risks.

The presentation will investigate these topics, drawing on data from the interdisciplinary research project Systemic Risks at IASS. Special attention will be paid to resilient governance processes which allow for social learning and correspond with pluralistic societies.


Governance of systemic risks: Challenges for decision and policy making
Pia-Johanna Schweizer
Institute of Advanced Sustainability Studies Potsdam, 14467, Potsdam, Germany

Modern pluralistic societies face many challenges. Human life and the environment are especially challenged by large, systemic risks such as climate change, epidemics, financial breakdown and social inequality. Systemic risks can be characterized by four major properties. First, systemic risks are characterized by scientific complexity and epistemological uncertainty. Science cannot identify exact hazard probabilities. Instead, science utilizes models of scenario building to sketch out the stochastic nature of systemic risks. Second, systemic risks are transboundary and global in nature. They transgress nation states and call for international cooperation. Third, although systemic risks originate in one subsystem of society or the environment, the ripple effects of these risks affect all social subsystems, such as the economy, politics, and civil society. Fourth, future technological and societal developments are non-linear. Science struggles to identify tipping points of technological and social trends. Nevertheless, political decision makers call for scientific advice to govern our emergent future. Systemic risks pose great challenges to governance because they are highly interconnected and complex, stochastic and non-linear in their cause-effect relationships. Furthermore, they are often underestimated in public policy arenas and public perception. Consequentially, systemic risks demand cooperative management efforts of experts, corporate sector, civil society and regulators. Effective risk management must strike a balance between efficiency and resilience, and the solutions devised must be fair to all people affected. Effective, inclusive governance strategies are necessary to pursue the goals of resilience and sustainable development. Another complicating factor is the fact that we have to deal with the challenges of complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity when governing systemic risks. These challenges are inherent to the risk itself and limit our understanding - analysis and assessment - of risk. Furthermore, complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity influence approaches towards risk management and consequentially risk management options. While a lot of data is available, there is still a lack of structures and processes that allow meaningful integration towards decision-making and policy processes. The meta-theoretical concept of inclusive governance therefore serves as a guiding framework to tackle the challenges of systemic risks, because it aims to merge all relevant types of knowledge – both within and outside science – in order to jointly among stakeholders find solutions that help us initiate, support and scientifically accompany the transformation to sustainable development. The symposium provides an overview of interdisciplinary research tackling systemic risks. Special attention will be paid to the ways in which complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity pose challenges to governance of systemic risks.


Managing Systemic Risks of Wind Energy: A Comparative Case Study in Energy Transitions.
Bonnie Ram
University of Delaware, 19716, Newark, United States

Wind energy is one of the fastest growing low-carbon energy supply options that is mitigating climate change threats with significant emissions reductions. This presentation discusses a comparative case study of Denmark and the Delmarva region in the U.S.[1] in relation to their energy transitions and sheds light on systemic risks and the need for interdisciplinary approaches. With ambitious goals of a fossil free energy system by 2050 and 50% wind energy on their electricity system by 2020, Denmark is well on her way to staying in the forefront of the renewable energy revolution and addressing the urgencies of climate change. The Delmarva region, on the other hand, has modest goals for renewable energy supplies with state renewable portfolio standards. Although one of the regional utilities is moving forward with significant integration of renewable energy supplies and some state politicians are advocating for a climate policy, the national government is rolling back climate-related policies that may affect the speed and the integration of low-carbon sources.

Defining the systemic risks associated with energy transitions in Denmark and the Delmarva region focuses on the following aspects:

  • The physical infrastructure: The electricity system – national and multi-national connections and energy supplies,
  • Socio-institutional structures: National to local decision making and regulatory frames for siting clean energy technologies within the context of host communities, and
  • Public perception, engagement and communication: Community acceptability and tolerability of wind technologies, including the role for compensation and co-ownership schemes.

What can we learn from these 2 very different systems with distinctive drivers for energy transitions? Which potential risk evaluation strategies that deal with systemic risks are “tolerable and politically acceptable” to decision makers as well as host communities? Finally, can we define key aspects of the ripple effects – threats of multiple breakdowns in the critical services, such as blackouts and/or damage to the physical electricity infrastructures within a nation and across borders—that need to be considered by electricity sector managers?

 

[1] The Delmarva region is a peninsula of the eastern United States including most of Delaware and parts of eastern Maryland and Virginia.


Assessing influence of smart technologies onto the resilience of critical infrastructures
Amrita Choudhary 1, Aleksandar Jovanovic 1, 2
1 European Virtual Institute for Integrated Risk Management, 70174, Stuttgart, Germany
2 Steinbeis Advanced Risk Technologies, 70174, Stuttgart, Germany

The modern critical infrastructures (CIs) are becoming increasingly smarter (e.g. the smart cities, smart energy supply). Making the infrastructures smarter usually means making them smarter in the normal operation and use, more adaptive, more intelligent etc., so that they learn and react smartly. However, it has to be understood if this smartness also lead to an increase in resilience of CIs when exposed to threats, such as extreme weather disasters or, e.g., terrorist attacks, or new and emerging threats for instance cyber-attacks, which are mostly unknown with the advancements in new technologies space.

To understand this, the EU project SmartResilience is developing an indicators-based approach in following steps. (A) Definition of resilience in the context of smart critical infrastructures (SCIs). (B) Identification of their needs and challenges (C) Understanding smartness and it’s characteristics for SCIs (D) Identification of existing indicators suitable for assessing resilience of SCIs. (E) Identification of new “smart” resilience indicators (RIs) – including those derived from Big &open data. (F) Development of a new advanced resilience assessment methodology based on smart resilience indicators (“resilience indicators cube”, including the resilience matrix). (G) Development of an interactive “Resilience Dashboard” tool. (H) Application of the methodology/tools in six case studies, which are further integrated under a “virtual smart city” case study, involving energy, transportation, health, water and other infrastructures.

Furthermore, in this process it is important to understand what does “smartness” means? What are it’s characteristics? Are there any challenges related to “smartness” of new smart technologies? This presentation also provides a perspective on what characteristics could be considered while assessing the influence of smart new technologies on the resilience of critical infrastructure. This means, understanding what does “smartness” means in the context of critical infrastructure, and what are the respective challenges posed by these technologies used in SCIs. Further, these characteristics and challenges are used as a basis for surveying the project case studies to understand the particular “smartness” characteristics, smart systems and challenges they face while incorporating these technologies into the SCIs. Consequently, these characteristics and challenges inform the new methodology developed in the project to assess the resilience of the SCIs. At the end, a proposal is made on how the Emerging Risk Management Framework from CWA 16649, can be extended to manage these new smart technology related risks and improving the resilience of SCIs.

Monday, June 19th - Foyer - 11:00 - 12:30
Symposium - Analysis and Resilient Governance of Interconnected Risks
Analysis and Resilient Governance of Interconnected Risks
Hideaki Shiroyama
the University of Tokyo, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan

The aim of this symposia is to analyze the interconnectedness of risks and explore resilient governance framework to deal with those risks. The conventional studies have revealed the increasing trend of interconnectedness and stressed the importance of the management of interactions among various risks. However, the focus of existing studies are often on the interaction between “physical/ economic” factors and less on the “behavioral/ cognitive” factors. In addition, current approach to risk governance has limitations about the range of “threat/ hazard” to be considered and the range of “consequences” to be responded. Because disconnection is no longer feasible in this highly connected world, broad range of consequences must be anticipated in the consideration of resilience and adaptation.

In this symposia, (1) we will apply “hazard/ threat (both intentional an unintentional)” - “medium (socio-systemic context)” - “consequences” framework to various cases to highlight different patterns of interconnectedness in the medium (ex. difference between interaction of “physical/ economic” components and interaction of “behavioral/ cognitive” components, different pattern of interaction among “physical/ economic” components and “behavioral/ cognitive” components), and different scope of “hazard/ threat” and “consequences” which are dealt with; and (2) explore the ways and approaches for the management of interconnectedness.

The symposia starts with the introduction given by the Chair (Hideaki Shiroyama), followed by four case studies; global public health (Makiko Matsuo); space and cyber (Yuichiro Nagai); nuclear power (Taketoshi Taniguchi) and climate change (Yee-Kuang Heng). Then the chair (Hideaki Shiroyama), based on those comparative case studies, discuss a resilient governance framework that enables long-term and cross-sectoral response for future interconnected risks.


Resilient Governance of Interconnected Risks
Hideaki Shiroyama
the University of Tokyo, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan

The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake proved the fact that a single risk (earthquake)’s interaction with the risks in other sectors (nuclear power plant) can develop into the so-called NaTech event and can bring about an amplified consequence (community evacuation and food contamination etc.). Such catastrophe has brought to the fore the importance of analyzing the interconnectedness of risks and developing resilient governance framework to deal with those risks. However, the scope of existing studies are less focused on the interactions among various components in the system, and focused on the interaction between “physical/ economic” components rather than "behavioral/ cognitive" components even when interactions are paid attentions. In addition, current approach to risk governance has limitations about the range of "threat/ hazard" to be considered and the range of "consequences" to be responded. For example, in the case of nuclear power accident, issues are what natural disaster (volcano, space weather, etc.) should be considered for preparedness and what consequences (health impact caused by evacuation, change of energy industry and service provision structure caused by the accident) should be targeted and managed.  

So we undertake case studies using "hazard/ threat (both intentional an unintentional)" - "medium (systemic context)" - "consequences" framework, and to discuss about the management process of responding to interconnected risks. "Medium" has physical, economic, behavioral and cognitive components, and includes interaction among those components. Through comparison of cases in different area (namely, global public health, space and cyber, nuclear power, and climate change) using framework based on hazard-medium-consequence loop, I would like to (1) identify different patterns of interconnectedness in the medium (ex. difference between  interaction of “physical/ economic” components and interaction of "behavioral/ cognitive" components, different pattern of interaction among “physical/ economic” components and "behavioral/ cognitive" components), and different scope of "hazard/ threat" and "consequences" which are dealt with; and to (2) explore the ways and approaches for addressing such complex interconnected nature of risks in resilient manner. Then based on those comparative case studies, I would like to analyze variety of resilient governance frameworks that enable long-term and cross-sectoral response for future interconnected risks.


Climate Change and the Resilience Framework in Singapore
Yee-Kuang Heng
University of Tokyo, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan

This paper begins by surveying the interconnected risks that Singapore faces from climate change, ranging from threats to its low-lying critical infrastructure such as airport and financial centre, to resurgence of tropical infectious diseases; dangers to its water supplies and implications for military operations. The paper then moves to examine several developments that the Singapore government has introduced in an attempt to build resilience against climate change risks. These include the establishment of the inter-agency Resilience Working group at the National Climate Change Secretariat, and the introduction of the Resilience Framework in 2012 to guide climate change policies on resilience. The basic underlying governance premise is that a whole-of-society approach is necessary to build resilience against climate change, with the involvement of multiple actors and stakeholders. This approach is derived from a previous long-standing philosophy of Total Defence, which stresses civil, social, economic, psychological and military defence. Based on the hazard-medium-consequence loop proposed in this symposia, while climate change is seen largely as an unintentional threat/hazard, the paper examines how far the medium of response stressed in Singapore governance frameworks comprises behavioural, economic, physical and cognitive components.


Risk Governance Deficits and Their Long-term consequences: The Case of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident
Taketoshi Taniguchi
The University of Tokyo, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan

Six years have passed since the Fukushima nuclear accident, the nuclear emergency declaration announced in March 11, 2011 still continues, and we face a wide range of hurdles that should be overcome at both onsite and offsite. After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, risk governance deficits in Japanese nuclear fraternity are partially corrected, but critical deficits such as interface problem among stakeholders and a lack of appreciation or understanding complexity of socio-economic-political fabric still remain. And behind risk governance deficits, there are affirmative awareness and attitude of justifying and maintaining the status quo. These awareness and behavior still pervade even after the Fukushima in bureaucratic government. Consequently, as of January 2017, two PWR plants only are in commercial operation again.

The Fukushima nuclear disaster still yields the ripple effects through the fabric of society, and brings about a wicked problem with huge impacts. For example, political discussions on reform plan including realignment of the major utilities' nuclear power divisions, new scheme for burden sharing of compensation payment using liberalized electricity retail market etc., are led by the METI. Considering the situation, among others, Japan’s energy transition policy aiming at low carbon society tends to deviate politically and now at crossroad.

Most of cascading events originated in the Fukushima nuclear disaster are not the “unexpected” or “unforeseeable” consequences. Nuclear power in Japan has been tightly and complexly interlinked with and interdependent on socio-economic-political activities and has also produced nested or collective interests everywhere. The present crisis results from not only a lack of realization of the above-mentioned but also inaction of continuous consideration and undertaking about behaviors of interconnected socio-economic-political system accompanied by changes of endogenous conditions. It is a critical deficit of risk governance in modern society. So far the Fukushima problems have been addressed by the restricted stakeholders in the limited contexts such as nuclear safety regulation and nuclear energy policy without including the relevant policy domains. TEPCO and the government have taken actions with a myopic view/ framing in worrying too much about loss of societal trustworthiness, while evading realistic estimates and deliberations about future scenarios including wild card scenario. As a result, policy options for dealing with our challenges become to be limited, consequently resilience of policy lost. It is needed to construct long-term and cross-sectoral framing/management of interconnected events in order to reconstruct resiliently sustainable energy system.


Resilient governance of the risks coming from the interconnectedness of space and cyberspace
Yuichiro Nagai, Hideaki Shiroyama
The University of Tokyo, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan

               This research will assess the interconnected risk of space and cyberspace by using the threat-medium-consequence framework, and examine how adverse effects of threats to space system diffuse through cyberspace into a variety of critical infrastructures and eventually bring unexpected consequences in society. In conclusion, this research will discuss the possible ways to enable better management of, and effective response to, the interconnected risks. 

              Space system is an integral part of global information infrastructures on which modern society is deeply reliant in many facets. However, safe space operation is facing a wide variety of threats and hazards. Intentional threats include many different ways to take counerspace measures such as ASAT and cyber attacks. It is also likely that those who have malicious intent may embed malware or malicious program into the component of space system during the course of supply chains. Beside, space system is also facing unintentional threats, including a growing number of space debris and extreme space weather. All these threats and hazards, regardless of whether malicious intention actually exists, potentially have adverse physical (hard kill) or non-physical (soft kill) effects on the function of entire space system

                Such impacts on space system cause the loss or disruption of space-based information and applications such as satellite communication and GNSS services, which are critical to the operation of critical infrastructures. The influences potentially bring far-reaching ramifications in society: turmoil in financial market, traffic disturbance, the knockout of power grid, disruption of communication and information systems, and so on. These situations will also be deteriorated by the loss of credibility of space system and space-enabled infrastructures. As a result, our society will potentially face a variety of unexpected consequences in such areas as security, defense, economy, and everyday life of people. Furthermore, a cascading effect may also bring other consequences in different sectors of society.

                In this situation, because it seems to be highly difficult to prevent all the threats to space system, effective management of the interconnected risks requires the ways to prepare for any eventuality by enhancing resilience of the entire society beyond the space sector and to enable a quick response after the event through cross-sectoral collaboration.

                This research will bring a better understanding of the complex nature of the risks coming from the interconnectedness of space and cyberspace. It will contribute to considering resilient ways to effectively deal with the interconnected risks.

Monday, June 19th - Auditorium #2 - 13:15 - 13:45
- SRA-E General Assembly meeting
Monday, June 19th - Auditorium #2 - 13:45 - 15:15
Symposium - Public perceptions of climate change and its impacts
Public perceptions of climate change and its impacts
Andrea Taylor
University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom

In this two part symposium we explore public perceptions of climate change, its causes and its impacts. Public support for climate policy, and willingness to undertake behavioural change, may partly determine the success of efforts to limit the impacts of climate change through greenhouse gas reduction (mitigation) and limit the harm caused by those impacts that do occur (adaptation). It is therefore important to understand how different public audiences currently conceptualise climate change, its underlying causes, its present and future impacts, and the steps that can be taken to mitigate and adapt to it.  The presentations included in these two sessions will cover all of these aspects of climate change risk perception. In Part 1, the first paper by Dryden et al, examines beliefs about the causes and consequences of climate change in contrast to other forms of air pollution. Second, Harcourt et al. report on findings from in-depth interviews exploring the ways in which concepts such as mitigation and adaptation are interpreted by a diverse sample of the UK public. Third, Schmitt et al, present findings from a series of engagement workshops exploring how different stakeholder groups in different Portuguese municipalities perceive climate change and adaptation. In Part 2, the first paper by Taylor et al. uses data from a large UK national survey to compare public expectations about climate change impacts and adaptation priorities with expert assessment. Following this, Klima et al, explore willingness to actively engage in adaptation amongst UK and US residents. Finally, Delicado et al. explore perceptions of climate-related impacts and strategies for resilience amongst children and young people in five European countries, a group often excluded from debates around adaptive measures to climate change. Taken together these papers highlight key differences between expert scientific assessment of climate change and its impacts, and how these are interpreted by different non-expert audiences.


Public priorities and expectations of climate change impacts in the United Kingdom
Andrea Taylor, Suraje Dessai, Wandi Bruine de Bruin
University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom

BACKGROUND The UK government’s Climate Change Risk Assessment projects that climate change will lead to a range of impacts. The national adaptation plan envisions an active role for individuals and communities in reducing the harms, and taking advantage of the opportunities a changing climate presents. However, work in behavioural decision science demonstrates that formal risk assessments do not always align with the expectations and priorities of the wider public.  In this paper we addressed three research questions:  1) What are UK residents’ expectations and priorities with respect to climate change impacts? 2) How do UK residents’ expectations of potential climate change impacts compare to expert assessments? 3) What are the predictors of willingness to allocate resources to specific impacts?

METHODOLOGY We conducted a secondary analysis of a UK national survey (n=2007) conducted in winter 2013.Participants were each randomly assigned to 10 out of 19 climate change impacts. For each, they rated the perceived likelihood of each occurring by 2050 (1=not at all likely, 5=very likely), their anticipated concern should they occur (1=not concerned at all, 4=very concerned), and their willingness to allocate resources (allocating 15 tokens amongst impacts). Additionally, climate change belief was measures using a three item scale.  Expert assessments of impacts are drawn from the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment.

RESULTS Our analysis yielded three main findings. First, we observed that UK residents tended to prioritise threats related to flooding, water security and food security more highly than opportunities or threats related to heat extremes. Second, expectations of climate change impacts did not consistently align with expert assessments, especially showing lower estimates of heat-related threats as compared to experts. Third, willingness to allocate resources to climate change impacts was more strongly associated with anticipated concern should they occur, than climate change belief or expected likelihood.

CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that UK residents may underestimate the threat posed by projected increases in heat extremes, and thus be less prepared to support measures to prepare for these threats. They also suggest that willingness to support specific adaptation measures may more strongly linked to concern about the magnitude of specific impacts, rather than their likelihood of occurring, or more general concern about climate change. One important practical implication of this is that communications promoting adaptation to specific threats may be more successful if they focus on the potential consequences of these impacts, rather than on climate change in a broader sense.


Perceptions of climate change and its impacts among children and young people: results from a project based on participatory methodologies
Ana Delicado, Jussara Rowland, Sofia Ribeiro, Luísa Schmidt
Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa, 1600-189, Lisbon, Portugal

Even though climate change impacts are already being felt, young generations will be most severely affected. At the same time, they are excluded from decision-making and from the debates around adaptive measures. Though the young are assumed to be more environmentally aware and education curricula in Europe pays particular attention to climate change, not much is known about how they perceive this challenge and what are their views on how to address it.

This presentation analyses the results of a set of workshops conducted with school children (aged 9-10 years old and 14-15 years old) in three different locations in Portugal. The aim of the workshops was to promote the engagement of young people in disaster risk management, focusing on climate-related extreme weather events. The discussions and activities revolved around the concepts of climate change, impacts, mitigation and adaptation, risk, vulnerability and resilience. Particular attention was payed to national and local risks (flooding, heat and cold waves, storms, forest fires, landslides, tornados, cliff collapse). Participants were then asked to come up with suggestions for increasing resilience to climate change impacts and to communicate them to decision makers and stakeholders.

The presentation is based on the project CUIDAR Cultures of Disaster Resilience amongst Children and Young People, a European CSA project (funded by the Horizon 2020) that aims: (1) to understand children's experiences of disasters; the impact on their lives, their resilience and the longer-term recovery process; (2) To discover how children can best be supported in disasters and how to enhance their resilience to future emergencies; (3) To influence emergency policy and practice to better meet the needs and build the resilience of children and young people. This project is led by the University of Lancaster (UK) and involves teams in five European countries.


Understanding how non-experts talk about climate change impacts, risks and adaptation.
Rachel Harcourt 1, 2, Wandi Bruine de Bruin 2, 3, Suraje Dessai 1, Andrea Taylor 1, 2
1 Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom
2 Centre for Decision Research, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom
3 Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, 15213, Pittsburgh, United States

Global climate change will bring new risks to the UK, such as more extreme weather patterns. Governing bodies are promoting adaptation strategies as a means to improve resilience and recovery, thus reducing the amount of harm caused by impacts. Successfully implemented strategies will require broad public support for adaptation policies, as well as large scale uptake of individual adaptive actions. Communications targeted at the general public will therefore need to convey clear and relevant risk information and targeted and accessible adaptation options. This research sought to test people’s understanding of concepts widely used in expert led communications about climate impacts and adaptation strategies.

Twenty-two in-depth interviews were carried out in 2013 and 2014 with members of the UK public. Participants were selected for their diverse climate change beliefs, as expressed on a pre-survey. Interviewees were asked to discuss ideas that they associated with 1) climate change impacts, and 2) adaptation.

We found that the interviewee’s understanding of these concepts was markedly different from that of the expert community. First, consideration of likely impacts extended from the very small-scale, such as icy roads, through to long-term, global threats, such as mass migration. Second, across all respondents there was low awareness of adaptation as an available means to respond to climate change risks. People used the term interchangeably with ‘mitigation’ particularly in regards to their own actions taken. Third, nearly a third of interviewees (n. 7) voiced unprompted signifiers that they felt uncomfortable with the terminology, e.g. apologising for ‘wrong’ answers. Fourth, while most accepted that the UK will need to make changes in response to climate change impacts, a significant minority group (n. 6) were more sceptical. These interviewees raised the issue of scientific uncertainty, expressing both distrust and frustration towards expert groups.

Despite the interviewee’s diversity of climate change opinions, misunderstanding of the key concepts was a common finding across the sample. The interviewees were not clear on the impacts likely to affect the UK and most considered themselves not to be personally at risk. The interviewees were also not clear on the difference between mitigating climate change and adapting to its impacts. This highlights the need for greater clarity around expert concepts which are used in communications targeted at the general public. Improving understanding of these fundamental concepts will be important in ensuring that official communications are accurately received and can provide useful guidance.


Failure to discriminate how long air pollution and carbon dioxide remain in the atmosphere
Rachel Dryden 1, M. Granger Morgan 1, Ann Bostrom 2, Wändi Bruine de Bruin 1, 3
1 Carnegie Mellon University, 15213, Pittsburgh, United States
2 University of Washington, 98195, Seattle, United States
3 University of Leeds, LS6 1AN, Leeds, United Kingdom

The atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide is hundreds of years, many orders of magnitude longer than that of common air pollution, which is typically hours to a few days. However, randomly selected respondents in a mail survey in Allegheny County, PA, (N = 119) and in a national survey conducted with MTurk (N = 1,013) judged the two to be identical (in decades), considerably overestimating the residence time of air pollution and drastically underestimating that of carbon dioxide. Moreover, while many respondents believe that action is needed today to avoid climate change (regardless of cause), roughly a quarter hold the view that if climate change is real and serious, we will be able stop it in the future when it happens, just as we did with common air pollution. In addition to assessing respondents’ understanding of how long carbon dioxide and common air pollution stay in the atmosphere, we also explore the extent to which people correctly identify causes of climate change and how their beliefs affect support for action. With climate change at the forefront of politics and mainstream media, informing discussions of policy is increasingly important. Confusion about the causes and consequences of climate change, and especially about carbon dioxide's long atmospheric residence time, could have profound implications for sustained support of policies to achieve reductions in carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases. 


Perceptions of climate change: consultation process with stakeholders on local communities adaptation strategies to climate change
Luísa Schmidt 1, Adriana Alves 1, Susana Valente 2
1 Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1600-189, Lisbon, Portugal
2 Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1749-016, Lisbon, Portugal

The ClimAdaPT.Local project goal is the development of 26 Municipal Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change (MASCC), through the training of local municipality officials, engaging local communities and rehearsing an approach that can be replicated throughout the country.

In order to increase the capacity for municipalities to incorporate adaptation to climate change in their planning and territorial management instruments, several methodologies and tools were developed. One of these tools, which is an innovative part of the processes developed so far in the elaboration of these type of strategies, is local stakeholder engagement.

In this presentation, we will show the results of that consultation tool, that is the engagement and active participation of a wide and diverse group of local stakeholders in the elaboration and future implementation of the 26 MASCC. The municipalities were selected by inter-municipality community (on per each community in Portugal), which has enabled ensuring a wide geographic, socio-economic and cultural diversity.

Workshops were carried out in order to understand perceptions of climate change impact, local risks, and also dispositions and suggestions to be incorporated in the ongoing MASCC, in 26 sessions that brought together the main stakeholders of the local communities concerned.

Each session comprised several discussion tables, in which a moderator and a reporter facilitated the debate, based on a script structured in three fundamental axes: (i) perceptions of the impacts already felt, or not, of climate change  in the municipality; (ii) assessment of the viability of the proposals included in the strategy designed by municipal officials , as well as obstacles, responsibilities, suggestions and recommendations; (iii) visions of the future: how climate change and local identity will be articulated in the near future.

The information gathered aimed at: (i) obtaining a global reference framework on perceptions and sensitivity to Climate Change at a local level; (ii) to complement the vulnerabilities assessment made by the technicians from each municipality; (iii) to inform, adjust and optimise the local communication strategies.

In this presentation, we will analyse results regarding climate change perceptions from the different groups of stakeholders engaged in the workshops.

Monday, June 19th - Auditorium #3 - 13:45 - 15:15
Symposium - Challenges and Opportunities for Vaccination Uptake (Part 2)
Addressing Challenges and Opportunities for Vaccination Uptake (Part 2)
Josh Greenberg
School of Journalism and Communication Carleton University Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1S 5B6, Ottawa, Canada

Vaccination is one of the greatest medical achievements in modern history. Prior to the introduction of mass immunization, diseases such as smallpox, measles, and polio, devastated families and communities, not only because of their high mortality rates but also due to their potential life-altering complications. Yet, despite the consensus that vaccination is a vital public health tool, growing numbers of parents express anxiety and concern about the possible risks of vaccines and choose to refuse or delay vaccination for their children. Access to vaccines also remains an issue of concern: even in advanced liberal democracies, some segments of the population experience disproportionately higher exposure to vaccine preventable illnesses.

 

This symposium brings together several papers across two panels to explore questions about risk communication and vaccine hesitancy, access and uptake. Collectively, both panels are concerned with growing rates of vaccine refusal and delay, and recognize the need to improve uptake of childhood immunization worldwide. They also share an understanding that more rigorous research is needed to understand what factors drive vaccine acceptance and access, and of the importance of developing effective, evidence-driven interventions using risk communication.

 

The papers in Panel 2 focus on groups with differing demographic characteristics and backgrounds, and the impact of these factors on vaccination uptake and acceptance. Karlien Strijbosch examines the health experiences and risk communication needs for Syrian parents of young children living in the Netherlands. She argues that risk communication is crucial for promoting awareness about the risks and benefits of vaccines, and provides insight into how migrants who fled civil war experience and inform themselves about the risks of vaccine preventable disease. As Barbara Rath reminds us, parents of under-immunized children are not always vaccine hesitant—some are simply uncertain about the vaccination status of their children and find it difficult to balance benefits and risks when it comes to making decisions about vaccination. Rath presents data from the Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative’s Vaccination App project, and shows how digital technologies can support parents in making more informed vaccination related decisions for their families. Finally, Michelle Driedger presents preliminary analysis from a new study examining the impact of source and narrative style on the vaccination decisions of Canadian parents. Driedger argues that both the source of information and the style of its presentation are important when it comes to understanding how vaccine hesitant parents can be moved from a position of hesitancy to compliance.


Health experiences and risk communication needs for immunization of Syrian parents with young children in the Netherlands
Karlien Strijbosch, Frederic Bouder
Maastricht University, 6211 SZ, Maastricht, Netherlands

International conflict and poverty are giving rise to migrants from places such as Syria, Eritrea, Afghanistan and Iraq. New immigrants and refugees could be particularly susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases because they may be lacking adequate immunization and may be more vulnerable to disease.  This can be a result of their journey, the lack of knowledge or ignorance of their vaccination status. Furthermore they might be afraid to disclose any personal information to what is perceived as ‘authority’. Risk communication plays an important role in developing a two-way communication process for improving awareness of immunization and vaccine preventable diseases, and in supporting people to assess the risks and benefits of both the vaccine and disease. This qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews will examine the health experiences of Syrian parents with young children in the Netherlands. It will offer an insight into the ways Syrian migrants who arrived after the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, experience and inform themselves about vaccine preventable diseases in the Netherlands. Furthermore it aims to understand the reasons behind immunization decisions made by Syrians for themselves and their families.


Educating parents about the vaccination status of their children: A user-centered mobile application
Lea Seeber 1, 3, Patrick Obermeier 1, 3, Xi Chen 1, 3, Katharina Karsch 1, 3, Susann Muehlhans 1, 3, Franziska Tief 1, 3, Barbara Rath 1, 2
1 Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative, 10437, Berlin, Germany
2 The University of Nottingham School of Medicine, NG5 1PB, Nottingham, United States
3 Charite University Medical Center, 13353, Berlin, Germany

Parents are often uncertain about the vaccination status of their children and many find it difficult to balance 
benefits and risks when it comes to  vaccines for their children. In times of vaccine hesitancy, vaccination programs could benefit from active patient participation.

The Vaccination App (VAccApp) was developed by the Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative, enabling parents to learn about the vaccination status of their children, including 25 different routine, special indication and travel vaccines listed in the WHO Immunization Certificate of Vaccination (WHO-ICV).
Between 2012 and 2014, the VAccApp was validated in a hospital-based quality management program in Berlin, Germany, in collaboration with the Robert Koch Institute. Parents of 178 children were asked to transfer the immunization data of their children from theWHO-ICV into the VAccApp. The respectiveWHO-ICV was photocopied for independent, professional data entry (gold standard). Demonstrating the status quo in vaccine information reporting, a Recall Group of 278 parents underwent structured interviews for verbal immunization histories, without the respective WHO-ICV. Only 9% of the Recall Group were able to provide a complete vaccination status; on average 39% of the questions were answered correctly. Using the WHO-ICV with the help of the VAccApp resulted in 62% of parents providing a complete
vaccination status; on average 95% of the questions were answered correctly. After using the VAccApp, parents were more likely to remember key aspects of the vaccination history. User-friendly mobile applications empower parents to take a closer look at the vaccination record, thereby taking an active role in providing accurate vaccination histories. Parents may become motivated to ask informed questions and to keep vaccinations up-to-date.


Developing and evaluating public health messages to address vaccine hesitancy
S. Michelle Driedger 1, Dube Eve 2, Greenberg Joshua 3, Jardine Cindy 4, Maier Ryan 1, Kim Corace 5, Jordan Tustin 6
1 University of Manitoba, R3E 0W3, Winnipeg, Canada
2 Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, G1E 7G9, Quebec City, Canada
3 Carleton University, K1S 5B6, Ottawa, Canada
4 University of Fraser Valley, V2S 7M7, Abbottsford, Canada
5 Royal Ottawa Foundation for Mental Health, K1Z 7K4, Ottawa, Canada
6 Ryerson University, M5B 2K3, Toronto, Canada

Views on vaccines range from those who are strongly supportive to those who are stridently opposed; where at these ends of the poles, people are reluctant to budge from identity-based core beliefs about vaccines. In between these poles are numerous others who can delay, be reluctant (but still accept), or refuse/accept some vaccines for their children but not others. It is with these vaccine-hesitant parents that the most immediate and productive gains can be made towards enhancing vaccination acceptance and possibly improving uptake. Yet there is little consensus on how best to use communication to respond to vaccine hesitancy.

Broadly speaking, the source matters when evaluating the credibility of information claims. Likewise, the actual content of what is communicated is equally important. Psychological research has demonstrated that stories/narratives motivate behavior change more than statistics/facts. However, there is a lack of literature examining whether stories require certain features for the content to resonate more in shaping the decisions made about a health recommendation.

In this before and after study, we aim to test two sources – a healthcare provider and a parent – and two types of story narratives – affective/intuitive vs rational/deliberative – on parental decision making about immunizing their child with the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine. The sample population will be comprised of parents having at least one child aged 2 or younger in Canada. Following recruitment into the study, through either Facebook advertisements or via a consumer panel, a parent’s level of ‘vaccine hesitancy’ will be measured using the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) tool. Parents with a score of 25 or more will be invited into the next phase of the study which involves exposure to a mock news story, varied by source and content. We will again assess their attitudes to vaccines as well as introduce a survey scale to measure their preferences for decision-making.

This presentation will focus on a preliminary analysis of our data based on focus group interviews with parents in both English and French, as well as a pilot testing of our survey instruments before full study roll-out.

Monday, June 19th - Room #1 - 13:45 - 15:15
Symposium - Food Safety & Sanitary Risk
Food Safety & Sanitary Risk
Elke Stedefeldt 1, Laís Mariano Zanin 2, Rayane Stephanie Gomes de Freitas 3
1 Centro de Desenvolvimento do Ensino Superior em Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04039-032, São Paulo, Brazil
2 Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 040390-032, São Paulo, Brazil
3 Universidade Federal de São Paulo, campus Baixada Santista, 11015-020, São Paulo, Brazil

According to the World Health Organization (2015), approximately 600 million people become ill after consuming contaminated food every year. In the governmental sphere, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) uses the concept of sanitary risk to regulate, control and monitor the production and consumption of products and services related to health. The variety of potential risks sets the need for a permanent analysis strategy that involves producers, suppliers, food suppliers professionals and the public. The pertinent literature, however, is still scarce, especially considering the magnitude of the associated sanitary risk (Silva and Lana 2014). As a threat resulting from an activity, service or substance to the quality of life of a given population, a sanitary risk involves, - in addition to an assessment of objective evidence of health damage from exposure to hazards -, the social, economic and political environment in which it occurs. The integration of these considerations defines the risk management approach and allows the establishment of effective strategies to combat risk (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária 2015, Silva and Lana 2014). The objective is to discuss the concept of sanitary risk from the perspective of food safety within three themes: mass events and risk management; military institutions and food safety culture; and food handlers' risk perception from the perspective of Bourdieu's social theory. The topic 'sanitary risk' as an object of research was born in the research group in 2006 with the elaboration and validation of a checklist of Good Practices of Handling in school feeding. In 2012, an instrument was developed to be applied at the 2014 FIFA World Cup. In 2015 was published the Guide for Health Surveillance in Mass Events: Risk Management, organized by Anvisa and supported by the Pan American Health Organization. Researches about the risk perception of food handlers from the street foods and commercial restaurants were conduct based on Bourdieu's perspective. In 2016, it was initiated a study in the area of food safety culture with the Defense Ministry of the Brazilian government. This year the "Operation Weak Meat" was published in the media causing huge social and economic impacts demonstrating the importance of risk communication, that made us reflect on social risk management. Åsa Boholm (2003) writes that social relations, power relations and hierarchies, beliefs, confidence in institutions and science, knowledge, experience, discourses, practices and collective memories shape the notions of risk or safety.


Risk analysis in Mass Gathering Events
Elke Stedefeldt 1, Laís Mariano Zanin 2, Diogo Thimoteo Da Cunha 3, Ana Lúcia de Freitas Saccol 4, Denise de Oliveira Resende 5
1 Centro de Desenvolvimento do Ensino Superior em Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04039-032, São Paulo, Brazil
2 Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04039-032, São Paulo, Brazil
3 Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13484350, Campinas, Brazil
4 Centro Universitário Franciscano, 97010-032, Santa Maria, Brazil
5 Sindicato das Indústrias da Alimentação no Estado de Goiás, 74645-230, Goiânia, Brazil

In public health context, a Mass Gathering Event (MGE) should be defined as any occasion, whether organized or spontaneous, which attracts a sufficient number of people to increase host community, city or nation's resources of planning and response. Among the common characteristics of these events it can be emphasized: it occurs during an specific time, it has specific location and it can be unpredictable (World Health Organization, 2008). However, MGE events are activities that are at increased risk of transmission of infectious diseases and outbreaks (Abubakar et al. 2012), and government actions are needed to identify, monitor and fast response to these situations (World Health Organization, 2008). Due to the increasing frequency of MGE in Brazil, some actions related to risk analysis were performed. Two actions will be mentioned. First, the elaboration process of a risk-based instrument to evaluate the hygienic and sanitary conditions and grading of food services of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.  Twenty-four Brazilian experts were invited for this elaboration. They were asked to determine the likelihood of different food handling situations that could lead to an outbreak. The nominal group technique was used for this purpose. A draft of the evaluation instrument was then created, based on Brazilian good manufacturing practices regulation and the opinion of the food safety experts. The draft evaluation instrument was used to evaluate 354 food services located in 10 cities that will host games as part of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 141 food services in seven state capitals that will not host the games. In 25 establishments, two health surveillance auditors conducted the application of the evaluation instrument at the same time to measure the inter-rater reliability using the kappa statistic. For each item a raw score was determined by the experts and adjusted based on the results of a factor analysis (Da Cunha et al. 2014). The second was the elaboration of the "Guide for health surveillance in Mass Gathering events: guidelines for risk management". The objective of this guide was to assist in the management and orientation of the multiprofessional teams of Sanitary Surveillance in MGE, aiming at a strategic and harmonized action. The preparation of the document was structured following technical-scientific methodological procedures and included the participation of Sanitary Surveillance representatives in the different spheres of government (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, 2016). This guide was used during the Rio de Janeiro Olympics in 2016.


Ethnographic notes about risk perception of food handlers from the perspective of Bourdieu's social theory
Rayane Stephanie Gomes de Freitas 1, Diogo Thimoteo da Cunha 2, Elke Stedefeldt 3
1 Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Campus Baixada Santista, 11015-020, Santos, Brazil
2 Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13484-350, Campinas, Brazil
3 Centro de Desenvolvimento do Ensino Superior em Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04039-032, São Paulo, Brazil

Foodborne diseases outbreaks can be caused by food handlers’ inappropriate behaviors and practices (Codex Alimentarius 2009). The way a person appreciates, perceives and acts in the world is conditioned by the habitus, which is influenced by the social class and, it is also updated in the face of life experiences in the social world (Bourdieu 1977). We aim to discuss concepts of Bourdieu's social theory in the context of food handlers, which interfere in their risk perception. The main strategies used were ethnography and participant observation, that was carried out in six commercial restaurants of two Brazilian cities during 42 days. Data about foodservice infrastructure, location, details about the agents, their speeches, nonverbal communications, interpersonal relationship, work routine and relation with food safety were written in field diaries. Content analysis of the thematic type was used to elucidate data (Bardin 1986). It was observed 68 workers. The food handlers’ habitus is the result of numerous social incorporations from both the family and the professional environment. Most of them are from rural and very low income families. The low level of education combined with this scenario makes their risk perception being based more on common sense information than on information disseminated through good practice courses. The cultural richness of these workers makes their peers be the main source of knowledge about the service, whom provide practical techniques for the daily routine, nonetheless, can also act in the dissemination of practices inconsistent with sanitary norms. The negative relationship of domination exercised by bosses may interfere in the disposition to adopt safety practices. The recognition given to workers by bosses, clients and peers has been identified as the central capital that brings them prestige and satisfaction with their work, in addition, it seems acting to increase the interest of compliance with good practices. The type of leadership and the kitchen environment help to comply with sanitary norms, regarding the absence/presence of appropriate physical, structural and personal conditions. Knowledge models the way these workers act in the face of risks, and it may be also a gateway to cognitive biases. In the absence of knowledge, the habitus guides practices. The difficulty in carrying out the practices that guarantee food safety may be due to the fact that these criteria are not experienced by these workers at their own homes, nor in their relatives' lives, then the criteria are not part of their primary habitus.


Risk Perception in military institutions from the perspective of food safety culture
Laís Mariano Zanin 1, Diogo Thimoteo da Cunha 2, Fernanda Peixoto 3, Rayane Stephanie Gomes de Freitas 4, Elke Stedefeldt 5
1 Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04039-032, São Paulo, Brazil
2 Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13484-350, Campinas, Brazil
3 Ministério da Defesa, 70049-900, Brasília, Brazil
4 Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Campus Baixada Santista, 11015-020, Santos, Brazil
5 Centro de Desenvolvimento do Ensino Superior em Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, 04039-032, São Paulo, Brazil

It is estimated that a positive food safety culture can provide best practices in food handling, thereby reducing sanitary risk. Food safety culture can be defined as "shared attitudes, values and beliefs about food safety behaviors that are routinely demonstrated in food handling," and can be assessed through six factors: management systems, style and process; leadership; communication; commitment; environment; risk perception (Griffith et al. 2010). The aim of this presentation is to discuss the interaction of foodborne disease (FDB) risk perception and optimistic bias of leaders and food handlers with the sanitary risk degree in military food services, permeating the training of handlers to establish a positive food safety culture. In partnership with the Ministry of Defense of the Brazilian government, a diagnosis was made of the elements of food safety culture in an army feeding service, in order to propose actions for a sanitary risk-based training program. For this presentation two important elements of the food safety culture will be in focus: risk perception and management system that includes sanitary risk assessment. The risk perception was evaluated through a structured scale with seven options anchored in the intensity descriptors -3 (extremely low) to +3 (extremely high) (Raats et al. 1999); from the risk perception questionnaire, the optimistic bias was identified (Da Cunha et al. 2015). For the evaluation of the sanitary risk degree, a checklist was used to assess hygienic-sanitary conditions based on risk criteria (Da Cunha et al. 2014). The food service was evaluated with a high degree of risk, due to the inadequacies in the use of the time and temperature and in the hygiene of the food. There was a low risk perception of FDB in leaders and food handlers, but the optimistic/pessimistic bias among them was not perceived, demonstrating that they understand the low risk in their food handling and in the way their peers manipulate them. The absence of optimistic/pessimistic bias strengthens the existing commitment among the group members and the formation of a team that emerges in the group studied, possibly linked by the military education. Therefore, minimizing optimistic bias, working on team formation and group commitment and increasing the risk perception are factors that point to a new look at the training of food handlers based on the premises of the systematic training model with a positive influence on food safety culture reducing the sanitary risk.

Monday, June 19th - Room #2 - 13:45 - 15:15
Symposium - Applying risk governance to new technologies & systemic risks
Applying risk governance to new technologies and systemic risks
Marie-Valentine Florin
International Risk Governance Center (IRGC), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland

IRGC's approach to risk governance, for conventional or emerging risks (IRGC risk governance framework and IRGC guidelines for emerging risk governance) is used to structure and guide practitioners. It is useful to support processes that aim to provide and structure scientific evidence about a risk issue, in a societal context. It also helps decision-makers analyse the major ambiguities and controversies that may affect the management of the risk,

The symposium will present and discuss with participants several areas of IRGC recent work:

  • Feedback from practitioners about their implementation of IRGC instruments, highlighting the challenges and successes of risk governance in large organisations;
  • Resilience strategies for risks that develop in complex systems, providing guidance to organisations to deal with systemic risks;
  • Value and examples of risk governance approaches to analyse new sectors, emerging technologies and risks, including precision medecine and applications of distributed ledger technologies (e.g. blockchain).

 


Applying risk governance thinking to precision medicine
Marie-Valentine Florin, Gerard Escher
IRGC (International Risk Governance Center), EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland

In September 2016, IRGC organised an expert workshop on the governance of precision medicine. The participants, from science, policy, regulation and industry, reviewed the main expected benefits and governance issues involved in the development of personalized medicine, which is based on advances in biomedical data science (including genomics), bio statistics and bio informatics. In particular, the participants discussed which main obstacles will have to be overcome, so that methods for assessing safety and efficacy are adapted to small samples in clinical trials, regulatory licensing systems adapt, the medical practice can change, patients and citizens engage, industry is incentivised, and payment / reimbursement can follow.

Given the potentially far-reaching consequences of precision medicine, understanding the governance challenges associated with the translation of science and technology into the clinical and therapeutical practice, as well as how health and disease are considered by individuals is paramount for decision-makers in the public and private sectors. A risk governance approach of the new emerging field (with interconnected benefits and risks) helps structure the thinking about the implications of precision medicine in the society.

The paper will elaborate from the 2016 workshop and further work on the development of a roadmap for precision medicine, and present how using the IRGC Guidelines for Emerging Risk Governance, can lay the groundwork for decision-makers to start considering risk governance approaches to personalised health and medicine.


Distributed ledger technologies – A risk governance approach
Marie-Valentine Florin, Marcel Bürkler
EPFL International Risk Governance Center, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland

Distributed ledger technologies (DLTs) such as blockchain have the potential to disrupt not just the way information is stored, accessed, and shared but also how private individuals, citizens, governments or businesses interact with one another. A system of decentralised trust, DLTs build incorruptible public ledgers of data stored in a decentralised, distributed, and interconnected way. Known for being the software behind the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, DLTs are now beginning to be applied in various sectors and fields, such as the finance industry, data storage and exchange in the medical sector, e-voting, shareholder governance or smart contracts. As DLTs do not require intermediaries, traditional authorities in many sectors including public life might be called into question.

Given the potentially far-reaching consequences of large-scale deployment of DLTs, understanding the governance challenges associated with such technologies is paramount for decision-makers in the public and private sectors. A risk governance approach could help structure the thinking about the implications of DLTs in order to identify relevant risk issues early on.  

This paper will present on-going IRGC project work on the governance of risks and opportunities of DLTs, drawing among others on an expert workshop and background paper. It will focus on applying the IRGC Risk Governance Framework for the purpose of laying the groundwork for decision-makers to start considering risk management approaches to this issue. 


Resilience strategies to deal with systemic risks
Sandra Pfeiffer 2, Marie-Valentine Florin 1
1 IRGC (International Risk Governance Center), EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland
2 IRGC (International Risk Governance Council), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland

Interconnectivity between systems is one of the defining and determining features of our modern world, which is becoming ever more complex and dynamic. While this interconnectivity can increase system efficiency and service delivery, it can reduce resilience and expose the various layered systems to risk of shocks, stresses or even system failures and collapses. Shocks to interconnected systems may cause feedback and cascading effects and unwanted side effects. A better understanding of the dynamic of risks in complex systems is essential for decision makers in order to pre­pare their organisations for future challenges – but for many applications, traditional risk management practices are no longer adequate in the face of high uncertainty, system com­plexity, interpretative ambiguity and turbulence.

This paper will present on-going work of the IRGC on how organisations can better deal with risks in complex systems. This includes resilience strategies, focusing on adapting or transforming systems, which can help prepare for and address the consequences of such risks.

Monday, June 19th - Foyer - 13:45 - 15:15
Symposium - Collaboration during crisis work in maritime contexts
Collaboration during crisis work in maritime contexts
Eric Carlström, Jarle Löve-Sörensen, Elsa Kristiansen, Leif-Inge Magnussen
Centre for Emergencies Integrated Crisis Management Unniversity Collage Southeast-Norway, 3199, Borre, Norway

 

Introduction: Conditions for collaboration during crisis work - an introduction based on experiences from a Scandinavian context. Eric Carlström

 

In this symposium, we focus on collaboration as legislation and collaboration exercises in maritime contexts. Scandinavian countries are known for their flat hierarchical structures. It is assumed that if different organizations integrate their resources on an accident site, i.e. collaborate; they will improve their efficiency dealing with serious incidents. Such strategies challenge the ability to use common resources (Berlin and Carlstrom, 2015).  Scandinavian authorities emphasize that exercises should be focused on identifying deficiencies, testing abilities, as well as developing collaboration at all levels of the preparedness system. In particular, cross-sector collaboration is highlighted as a particularly important task to be practiced. Getting employees to take the initiative to help each other across organizational boundaries is one of the more central goals in a collaboration exercise (Berlin and Carlstrom, 2014). Collaboration is brought into focus in situations of resource scarcity or resource asymmetry. This is especially needed at events where not all organizations are represented on the site. Such situations are common during a maritime crisis which is often characterized by long distances and severe weather conditions. As the first country in Scandinavia, Norway has included collaboration in the legislation which puts the focus on the preparedness, e.g. collaboration exercises. Furthermore, Norway has one of the longest coastline in the world and severe weather conditions, especially in the northern part of the country which puts a focus on risk, crisis work and collaboration in maritime context (Kristiansen et.al., 2017).

 


Collaboration during crisis work in maritime contexts
Eric Carlstrom, Jarle L Sorensen, Elsa Kristiansen, Leif Inge Magnussen
Center for emergency and integrated crisis management University College of Southeast-Norway, 3199, Borre, Norway

Collaboration as legislation – experiences from Norway.

Jarle L. Sørensen

Terror struck Norway on July 22, 2011, when the Norwegian-born Anders Behring Breivik killed 77 people in Oslo and at Utøya. In the aftermath of the attacks, the official investigation report concluded that the Norwegian society`s response to terror had been insufficient. While no persons or organizations were to individually blame, the overall ability to collaborate across sectors had been inadequate. As a response, the former Government Stoltenberg made several initiatives, including establishing in 2012 collaboration as a fourth national legislative emergency preparedness principle together with the already existing principles of responsibility, equality, and proximity. The principles of responsibility, equality, and proximity are also found in Swedish and Danish legislation, while collaboration is currently unique for Norway.

 

The existence of well-structured collaboration at an early crisis-stage positively affects the overall outcome. The Norwegian principle of collaboration states that public, private, and volunteer authorities and organizations all have an individual responsibility to ensure best possible crisis collaboration with other relevant crisis stakeholders, including mitigation and preparedness efforts. The principle`s goal is to highlight the need for optimal utilization of resources across sectors and to emphasize individual and joint obligations across national, regional and local levels in crisis work. The principle was before July 22 and still is, the legislative base for the organizational model of the Norwegian rescue services, which are carried out through a collaboration between public, private and volunteer stakeholders. By introducing collaboration as a national principle, collaboration is now a consistent and independent preparedness principle across branches and sectors regardless of type or level of crisis.

 

Norway, together with other northern countries such as Sweden, has a decentralized crisis management model, which is based on a decentralized, bottom-up system with some elements of centralization. Christensen, Lægreid, and Rykkja (2016) argued that the Norwegian model was characterized by accountability pulverization, fragmentation, and weak coordination. Such a model poses multiple collaboration challenges. In a crisis, collaboration is considered a primary concern, as it may impact a society`s overall ability to deal with adverse consequences. Lacking collaboration makes it harder for strategic leaders to meet social and political expectations and may result in less efficiency, flexibility, and overall resilience. The effects of collaboration as legislation are as of today little researched.

 


Perceived collaboration during maritime rescue operations
Elsa Kristiansen 1, Jarle L. Sørensen 1, Eric Carlstrom 2, 1, Leif I. Magnussen 1
1 Center for emergency and integrated crisis management, University College of Southeast- Norway, 3199, Borre, Norway
2 University of Gothenburg, 40530, Gothenburg, Sweden

This case study maps the perceived collaboration between public, private, and volunteer organizations during maritime crisis work, with a substantive focus on communication, information flow, and distribution of activities. The exercise studied, the NORD exercise 2016, was held in the far north in Norway, April 2016. It was estimated to be Europe’s most extensive exercise in 2016.

The exercise was multi-scenario based, and all together 1,500 actors participated. The members of the research group were there solely as researchers and observed the exercise. In addition, 15 semi-structured interviews were conducted. The 15 interviewees represented different stakeholders such as the police, information officer at social centre, hospital personnel, aircraft personnel, Coast Guard (NoCGV) personnel, helicopter pilot, and security staff. The data were analysed through deductive coding and divided into categories selected on the basis of relevance and purpose. Passages indicating aspects of information flow and communication, intra-organization focus and professionalism, size and distribution of activity, and finally, realism, were highlighted from the data set.

The philosophy behind the exercise was that 'everyone can participate and everyone should get something from it'. This desired outcome led to an extreme version of several scenarios and technicalities in nine different phases. We organized our observations and interviews into four categories to elaborate on the collaboration between different actors. From these, the key findings showed an intra-organizational focus, a predominance of drills, and different informal exercises instead of a cohesive exercise. This made evaluation difficult. Reasons for the fragmentation of the exercise appear to be the size of the exercise and the script.

Generalization of findings is problematic as this study involved only one exercise. However, this study has national significance, as it involved 22 public, private, and volunteer stakeholder organizations.

The study shows how collaboration fails as an effect of strict agendas and scripts to accomplish an impressive but complex and oversized exercise. Inter-organisational collaboration could be stimulated by a less controlled open-ended exercise. Such open-ended exercises have been designed and studied onshore, but are rare in maritime contexts. Asymmetries in the scenarios, repeated and evaluated exercise procedures, and room for testing different strategies can preferably be included by a maritime exercise such as the one under investigation. It is plausible that such an exercise can result in new thinking patterns, which can be useful in complex and difficult to manage events that require an ability to shift strategies.


Learning from Excercises - Collaboration Excercises as a Grand Theater?
Leif Inge Magnussen, Eric Carlstrøm, Jarle Løwe Sørensen, Elsa Kristiansen
University College of South East Norway Center of Emergency and integrated crisis management, 3603, Kongsberg, Norway

This research is on "Europ's Largest exercise" (?), a collaboration exercise runned by an unversity involving the miltarys and civil rescue forces, which was held in the spring of 2016.   Results is based on 28 questions found in two developed instruments; CLU-scale (Berlin & Carlstrøm 2009) and Collaboration theory (Torgersen & Steiro 2009). 74 exercise participants responded to the web-based survey. The total participant number included the exercise design group, which participated in the actual exercise. The designers also participated in the survey.  However, the design group` s answers were removed from the dataset before an SPSS analysis was conducted. The results were sorted by descending means. Sorting was done as an effort to highlight and point out the "extremities." The highest and lowest found means will be further discussed.

 

Without an exposure of something new or unfamiliar, an actor can feel competent and in charge of the situation. From a learning perspective dealing with "the unforeseen", or even making mistakes during an exercise can be perceived as meaningful and even welcomed, as it poses a definite challenge and gives room for personal development. It can also involve what Kahneman (2011) refers to as system two thinking.

 

The response to the "I had known tasks/roles during the exercise" question came out as the material result with the highest mean (4,46). Second-ranked was the outcome to the question "They from my organization who needs to train collaboration participated in the exercise." Such a result order indicated that the right people attended the exercise.  Found exercise insufficiencies were so forth interpreted to be more related to the actual exercise model,  learning content, framework, defined learning goals, complexity, timing, and evaluation processes. The third highest found mean relates to the question "Collaboration is a clear concept to me."

 

There was, in this "classical" exercise, little focus on collaboration in the initiation phase. The three lowest means were identified related to the questions  "We got clear instructions on how collaboration should happen during the exercise" (mean 3,27), "I learned how collaborating organizations work/function" (mean 3,27), and  "Personally, I think that the people in the front line had the most use of this exercise." (mean 3,18).  These findings support a notion that collaboration did not get emphasize in the exercise, and that the exercise was not of useful in actual crisis work. We propose an interpretation of this event in a symbolic framework; it was all about putting up a good show and performing a prewritten theatrical ritual and with little emphasis on learning.

 

Monday, June 19th - Auditorium #2 - 15:45 - 17:15
Parallel Sessions - Risk and uncertainty communication I
Food risk perceptions and mitigation strategies of consumers’ living in Northeast Italy: Challenges for risk communication
Barbara Tiozzo 1, Silvia Mari 2, Mirko Ruzza 1, Stefania Crovato 1, Licia Ravarotto 1
1 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie - Health Awareness and Communication Department, 35020, Legnaro, Italy
2 University of Milano - Bicocca, Department of Psychology, 20126, Milano, Italy

Food risks are of great concern for consumers, who face daily food choices and must cope with possible hazards. To succeed in increasing knowledge about correct food-handling practices in the domestic environment, communication materials should be designed according to the target’s beliefs, perceptions and attitudes about these risks. In addition, the socio-cultural context and the geographic territory should be regarded as factors that might influence personal strategies to mitigate risks. 
To this extent, this study intended to gain a deeper understanding of what people living in the Triveneto area (Northeast Italy) consider safe or risky foodstuffs and what strategies they adopt to cope with these risks. Four exploratory focus groups were conducted in the major towns of the target area (N = 45). A semi-structured interview was used that focused on beliefs about food risks, the use of information and media sources in relation to food risk, and the behaviours adopted when eating outside the home.
Discussions revealed the existence of a widespread perception of food risks that can be considered as strongly rooted in the social context of the reference group. Food risks were mainly associated with microbiological contaminations and foodborne infections and with the handling and consumption of eggs, meat and fresh products that expire in a short time. Food risk perceptions emerged as a two-dimensional construct based on two dimensions, quality warranties and perceived level of food controllability, which also served as mitigation strategies, together with the search for good hygiene conditions to avoid microbiological risk, especially outside the home. Findings also showed that consumers rely on personal knowledge as a successful strategy for risk avoidance, suggesting that food choices often reflect compromises in everyday life. Although the respondents seemed to be quite informed about food risks, a fatalistic sense of incomplete control was predominant in response to the lack of precise information on recognizing and preventing food risks. 
The investigation of food risk perceptions proved to be crucial to discover which topics require deeper knowledge and understanding by consumers to improve perceptions. Results might represent a starting point for public health authorities to inform food risk communication and to increase compliance with responsible behaviours for risk mitigation.


Food Risk Prioritization: A comparative study by experts and laypeople
Michael Siegrist 1, Philipp Hübner 2, Christina Hartmann 1
1 ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland
2 Gesundheitsdepartement Basel-Stadt Kantonales Laboratorium, Basel, Switzerland, 4012, Basel, Switzerland

Governmental agencies have limited resources to monitor and control risks related to food and everyday items. This study examined how laypeople (N = 92) and experts (N = 14) prioritized 28 hazards related to food and everyday items. Participants received detailed descriptions of the hazards, enabling them to make deliberative decisions. They prioritized the hazards before and after a group discussion (approximately 15 persons per group), in which the average prioritization of the group was discussed. The rankings of the hazards before and after the group discussion were highly correlated. However, a comparison showed significant differences in the rankings by laypeople and experts, particularly in 18 out of the 28 hazards. Laypeople prioritized the risks of pesticides and genetically modified (GM) foods and GM animal feed as higher than experts did. Experts gave higher rankings to the risks of bacterial contamination, banned substances in tattoo ink, allergens in food, and sensitizing substances in cosmetics compared with laypeople’s ratings. In order to test the influence of the deliberative method (e.g., providing detailed information about each hazard) data from a second group of lay people were collected by the means of a survey (N=118). This group did not receive specific information about the risks. The risk rankings of the laypeople group with information was highly correlated with risk ranking of laypeople without receiving information. Overall the results of the study suggest that deliberative methods of risk ranking or survey methods provide similar results among laypeople. There are, however, substantial differences between experts and laypeople. The results suggest that experts may have been less influenced by heuristics compared with laypeople because the former may have relied more on the severity of the outcome and the probability of a hazard. 


Sub-surface energy resources and low-probability high-consequence environmental risks: implications for risk communication and technology acceptance
Theresa A.K. Knoblauch, Michael Stauffacher, Evelina Trutnevyte
D-USYS TdLab ETH Zürich, 8092, Zürich, Switzerland

When it comes to strategic energy decisions, society needs to trade off benefits and environmental risks of alternative energy resources. Sub-surface resources, such as deep geothermal energy (DGE) or shale gas, offer the benefit of ubiquitous energy. However, harnessing sub-surface energy also poses risks to the environment such as induced seismicity. This risk of induced seismicity includes low-probability high-consequence (LPHC) events of damaging earthquakes. Inherent to forecasting such LPHC events are uncertainties and limited expert confidence. In our first study (N=590), we investigated how to communicate such LPHC seismic events, related uncertainty and expert confidence for a fictional DGE and a fictional shale gas project (between-subject design). Findings show that the public appreciates risk communication that includes quantitative information as well as risk comparisons more than purely qualitative information about LPHC events. When being informed about uncertainty and limited expert confidence the public finds risk communication less clear and more difficult to understand. The risk communication then also seems less trustworthy and increases concern. However, the technology for which environmental risks are communicated has a larger effect on the public’s response than the careful wording of the risk communication. That is, the public responds to identical environmental risk communication significantly more negative in the shale gas case than in the DGE condition. In our second study, risk communication is considered more broadly and aspects of technology acceptance are further explored. The second study investigates how the public trades off energy, environmental and community benefits against environmental risks for a DGE plant with special focus on its spatial dimension. Taken together, the two studies are able to inform risk communication and public engagement processes when siting sub-surface energy infrastructure but potentially as well other energy infrastructure with similar environmental risk characteristics.


“Stay away from the smoke”:  effects of alternative public  messages in case of large fires
Liesbeth Claassen 1, 2, Frans Greven 3, Fred Woudenberg 4, Frans Duim 3, Danielle Timmermans 1, 2
1 Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, 1091 BT, Amsterdam, Netherlands
2 National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, Netherlands
3 Municipal Health Service, Groningen, 9713 GW, Groningen, Netherlands
4 Municipal Health Service, Amsterdam, 1000 CE, Amsterdam, Netherlands

In large industrial of chemical fires, many  people worry about  the risk of developing cancer, even at a great distance from the fire. In addition, they overestimate the possibilities of environmental monitoring during the acute phase of a fire. In the Netherlands, public messages routinely contained phrases such as: ‘no hazardous substances are detected in the smoke’, ‘there is no threat to public health’, and ‘people are recommended to stay indoors and close doors and windows’. Such messages, meant to reassure the public, not only fail to adequately inform people about risk as they do not fit people’s ideas about risk, they are inherently inconsistent. That is, the advice to stay away from the smoke does not make sense unless people are also warned about the potential danger of the smoke. The above messages may even be counterproductive. When  people think the messages are part of a cover up and the risks are being downplayed they can make people worry more. To improve risk communication in case of large fires, we developed alternative risk messages and tested them in a hypothetical scenario. We found that although the messages did not differ with respect to adherence to recommendations or expectations towards government actions, they differed in how they were evaluated and in how risks were perceived. Alternative messages that included the phrase: ‘all smoke is harmful’ were considered more credible but also led to higher perceptions of risk than the routine message. The same message in which a clarification of the extremely low chance of developing cancer by inhaling the smoke (i.e. comparable to smoking a few cigarettes) was added, was also considered credible but did not lead to higher perceptions of risk than the routine message. Based  on our findings, we conclude that clear warnings such as: ‘all smoke is harmful’ are more informative than vague statements intended to reassure them, such as:  ‘there is no threat to public health’. In addition, we recommend to include a comprehensible qualification of cancer risk in such warnings. 


Interdisciplinarity and specialization: A reflexive study of scholarly communication in risk studies.
Frederic Vandermoere 1, Raf Vanderstraeten 2, Maarten Hermans 3
1 University of Antwerp, 2000, Antwerpen, Belgium
2 Ghent University, 9000, Gent, Belgium
3 University of Leuven, 3000, Leuven, Belgium

Since the rise of the modern university academics increasingly specialize. While some scientists maintain their identity as generalists, most tend to specialize in a small set of methods and theories. On the other hand, it also became increasingly attractive to label scientific research as ‘interdisciplinary’. In times of increasing specialization, calls for problem solving through knowledge integration are never far away (see Jacobs 2013). The basic idea that specialization positively contributes to both competition and innovation is gradually complemented by more critical accounts of the disciplinary structure in science (Andersen 2013; Vanderstraeten and Vandermoere 2015). Forces that pull in the direction of synthesis balance the intellectual division of labor. It is often assumed that specialized interdisciplinary fields such as risk studies can be considered as a paradigmatic example of this counterforce. Against this background, in this presentation we will build on previous reflexive studies on the history of the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) (see Thompson et al. 2005) but we will thereby focus on and compare the scholarly communication in two of its flagship journals: Risk Analysis and Journal of Risk Research. Specific attention will first be paid to the evolution and most recent distribution of journal articles by scientific discipline. Second, using journal relatedness data we will examine the features of the citation networks of both journals and the ties between risk studies and other fields of research. Third and finally, we will examine in more detail whether the interdisciplinary nature of risk studies varies according to specific risk topics and subfields of risk research.

Monday, June 19th - Auditorium #3 - 15:45 - 17:15
Parallel Sessions - Evidence-based risk governance, policy and regulation I
Strengthening the resilience of the Canadian water sector
Calvin Burns 1, Kevin Quigley 2
1 University of Strathclyde, G4 8QU, Glasgow, United Kingdom
2 Dalhousie University, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Canada

The National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure aims to make Canada’s 10 critical infrastructure sectors, one of which is water, more resilient.  In keeping with the strategy, the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA) has partnered with us to develop an all-hazards risk profile for the water sector which includes interdependencies and information sharing between the water sector and other critical infrastructure sectors. 

This paper has three objectives.  First, it reviews physical threats to water security in Canada and considers existing water security policy and legislation from Canadian provinces and territories in relation to theories that guide water security management. Then, it presents findings from semi-structured interviews with managers and employees of large, medium and small water utilities across Canada about goverance issues.  Lastly, it presents findings from a national survey of CWWA member organisations used to construct their risk profiles.

Our review of physical threats to water security and associated policy and practice suggest that water security management needs to develop in new directions to address emerging threats. Several management approaches are currently shaping water security practices, including ecosystem-based management, integrated management, and adaptive management. A variety of regulatory frameworks are also intended to influence water security practices, including the ISO Risk Management Principles and Guidelines, the Water Security Risk Assessment Framework, and the Water Security Status Indicator Framework. Water security practices have evolved over time from a focus on natural hazards, to man-made hazards, and now to an all-hazards approach. One of the most notable trends in water security management is the emergence of water ISACs for communicating risks and sharing best practices.

We also uncovered a number of emerging water security theories in our review which indicate a general shift away from “guns and gates” and towards a broader understanding of water security as interdependent with various sectors, as well as economic, ecological, social, and political factors.  While these theories have yet to be codified as concrete practices, they may indicate areas in which water security and management need to be improved.  Knowledge commons, normal accidents, and insider threats are all examples of theories, frameworks, or concepts of control and risk management that may apply to the management of the water supply.  The findings from these reviews have informed the development of our semi-structured interview questions and the national questionnaire survey which will provide an evidence-base for water security policy and practice in Canada and pehaps other countries.


Survey methodology and the science of risk: Limitations and future directions
Robin Cantor
Berkeley Research Group LLC, 20036, Washington, DC, United States

Survey methodology is often used when risk analysis depends on preferences and behaviors that cannot be measured directly by independent observation. These situations arise frequently in environmental and health disputes for which reliable risk estimates are needed. Even well-designed surveys can produce unreliable results when the preferences or behaviors of interest are illicit or poorly articulated by respondents. In such cases, the risk analyst is challenged to find corroborating evidence to support or refute survey results. This presentation reviews examples of survey applications in recent disputes over water resource allocation, tobacco usage, and product-labeling claims to illustrate the potential and limitations of frequently used survey designs to collect stated preferences and self-reported behaviors. The examples serve to highlight different issues raised by consideration of the standard two categories of survey error: measurement error (concerning the data of interest), and representation error (concerning the population of interest). In each example, the reliability of the survey results was susceptible to serious criticism based on conflicts with independent measures of behavior or economic rationality. The discussion concludes with some suggestions for improving survey design and better aligning the methodology with the demands of the analysis.


The ‘Black Hole’ of Risk Management: A Novel Perspective to Understand ‘Risk Appetite’
Nathan Zhang
Senior Lecturer in Risk Management Oxford School of Hospitality Management Oxford Brookes University, OX3 8LB, Oxford, United Kingdom

Over the last decade the business world has witnessed an increasing use of the term ‘risk appetite’. Considered as a business imperative to ensure successful enterprise risk management, risk appetite has become a popular topic among corporate governance regulators, risk management professionals and senior corporate decision makers. However, research on risk appetite is still at an early stage, and current practitioner-dominated literature often provides inconsistent views with regard to its meaning. Existing risk appetite explanations, i.e. its definitions and analogies, are almost exclusively offered by organisations (e.g. regulators and risk consultancies) promoting the concept, and there appears to be no explanations that come from the conceptualisations of the actual ‘end users’ of risk appetite, i.e. corporate executives and risk managers. Through in-depth interviewing with sixteen corporate executives and risk managers of two multi-national companies, this paper proposes a unified definition of risk appetite that not only captures the key themes of the literature, but also reflects how the ‘end users’ understand the concept. Moreover, this paper introduces a ‘black hole’ analogy of risk appetite (based on the conceptualisations of corporate executives), which provides a novel perspective for academics and practitioners to better understand the rather elusive concept of risk appetite.


The case for differential toxicity of pm2.5 and its implications for air quality regulation:  What can Americans lean from Europe
David Good, Kerry Krutilla, Kathryn Fledderman
Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs, 47405, Bloomington, United States

The mechanisms of action for PM2.5 are not well understood including its contribution to increase frailty (long term exposures) and harvesting among those already frail (short term exposures) as possibilities.  While empirical evidence points to a causal relationship between long term exposure to total PM2.5, without understanding mechanisms, the result is an inefficient and misguided regulatory policy that over regulates some types of emissions and correspondingly under regulates others.  

Our paper examines the case for differential toxicity of PM2.5 constituents in both the US and Europe as well as different mechanisms that can be used to combine this fragmented (including tools such as meta-analysis, integrated exposure assessment and expert elicitation).  To that end, we combine syntheses of the literature such as Janssen et al (2012); Grahame et al (2014); and Wyzga and Rohr (2015) as they pertain to long term exposure. 

Using this evidence, we re-evaluate nine recent air quality regulations promulgated by US EPA from 2010 through 2015 where US EPA steadfastly adheres to an equal toxicity assumption.  The rules we examine exclude those where the resulting emissions profiles are left to the States or other entities such as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) or the Cross State Air Rule. Our examined rules cover a variety of emissions sources including power plants, solid waste incinerators, spark ignited and compression ignited standby generators, wood stoves and other major source boilers. We evaluate the regulatory impact analyses from these rules and find that EPA tends to overstate the benefits of large rules (for example with the Mercury Air Toxics Standards (MATS) our analysis suggests benefits on average of $billion per year, and possibly as low as $-7billion instead of the $30-80 billion indicated by EPA).  At the same time, the net benefits of smaller rules such as woodstoves and compression ignited internal compression (CI-RICE) have substantially more life saving potential than suggested by EPA.  We conclude that as a minimum, US EPA should provide and uncertainty and or sensitivity analysis associated with black carbon.


Evidence-based policy advise? The case of PFOA.
Ric van Poll, Riny Janssen, Eugene Jansen
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands (RIVM), 3720 BA, Bilthoven, Netherlands

At the end of 2015 the case of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, C8) caught attention in the Netherlands. This was due to a series of studies performed around a plant of DuPont in Parkersburg, USA. To address public concern, the Dutch government decided to perform a risk assessment. The risk assessment was based on model calculations of blood levels of PFOA using emission data of the DuPont plant in the Netherlands. Three scenarios were examined. The worst – case scenario revealed that people living closest to the plant may have been exposed to PFOA levels higher than the limit values for many years.

For the follow-up several recommendations were made. Among them were: assessment of drink water safety, soil sanitation limits and retrieval of historical air emission values. Also a literature review on human health effect of PFOA and a verification study were recommended.

For the verification study a human biomonitoring study was performed. About 300 people that live in the vicinity of the plant were asked to give a blood sample and to fill in a short questionnaire. In addition a control group of about 50 people was included in the study. PFOA levels in serum were analyzed by a certified laboratory. The results will show to what extent model calculations were accurate and will be used to make recommendations for state interventions.

Monday, June 19th - Room #1 - 15:45 - 17:15
Parallel Sessions - Risk analysis, management & governance I
Swedish Policy for the Arctic: A Feminist Risk Analysis
Anna Olofsson, Katarina Giritli Nygren, Susanna Öhman
Mid Sweden University, 83125, Östersund, Sweden

Since 2007 there has been an increase in policies for the Arctic from many European and non-European countries. Sweden was the last of the Arctic states to launch a policy for the Arctic in 2011. While policies may be presented in ‘neutral language’ they are fundamentally political. In fact, a key task in order to understand contemporary power structures, is to trace the philosophical underpinnings of policy in order to capture its enabling discourses, mobilizing metaphors, underlying ideologies and uses. Drawing on feminist risk theory the aim is to analyze the Swedish policy for the Arctic to explore risk discourses about the Arctic and their performative practices through policymaking in Sweden. Feminist risk theory has been formulated in order to overcome the dividing lines of risk research and intersectionality. It highlights the need for analysis of the ‘doings’ of risk not only from the perspective of discourses that interpolate individuals into certain subject positions, but also from a perspective that acknowledges the power dimensions in the ‘doings’, and also recognizes that the performativity of risk takes place along lines of difference. It is also difficult not to acknowledge that risk theories are drawn from and, in turn, contribute to a particularly Western conceptualization of risk—one that is progressive, evidence-based, and rational, and situated historically and socially within a post-Enlightenment tradition of modernity, postmodernity, and development discourse. This has led us to question some of the underlying premises in the historical framing of not only risk but also the Arctic as a construct of the post-Enlightenment. Our analyses show the Swedish strategy adapts to and uses the dominant discourses about risks, such as climate change, human security as well as boarder societal security and energy shortage, while simultaneously positioning Sweden as the solution to manage these risks. Using an articulation that echoes the language used in stories about conquests of the Arctic that was written centuries ago, these ‘masculine fantasies’ are embedded in the policy and as a consequence is action and influence the Arctic region are enabled.  


Building a trinational Graduate Academy for risk management
Ulrich Ufer, Ralf Schulz
Universität Koblenz-Landau, D-76829, Landau, Germany

Graduate Academy SERIOR (Security-Risk-Orientation) is a joint project of six universities from Germany, France and Switzerland, involving c. 40 researchers from social sciences, natural sciences and humanities. During its three year build-up phase (2016-2018) project partners seek to implement an interdisciplinary as well as intercultural approach to risk analysis and risk management with a clear focus on the concerns of the Upper Rhine region. Graduate Academy SERIOR reaches out to stakeholders of civil society, businesses and administrations through its programme for science and technology transfer. The threefold aim of Graduate Academy SERIOR is to develop course offers for PhD-candidates and postdocs, to tighten the networks among risk and security researchers, and to involve a broader range of non-scientific stakeholders in the Upper Rhine Valley.

In this paper we present our approach to risk management which is structured by three thematic core areas: "security", "risk" and "orientation" allow to comprehend risk management as a complex interplay of the following aspects 1) understanding the cultural differences in subjective perceptions of security and risk; 2) objectifying risk assessmen t through the methods of natural sciences; 3) orientation in the face of multifaceted risk communications and differing conceptions of risks and security. We ask, what are the challenges and opportunities for risk analysis to achieve an integration of scientific and practical knowledge within the setting of the Upper Rhine region, marked by cross-border and intercultural cooperation?


Overview of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Establishment-based Risk Assessment model: principles and algorithm
Manon Racicot 1, Alexandre Leroux 7, Tom Gill 5, Sylvain Charlebois 5, Romina Zanabria 8, Sylvain Quessy 2, Julie Arsenault 2, Greg Paoli 6, Ann Letellier 2, Mansel Griffiths 3, Rick Holley 4
1 Canadian Food Inspection Agency, J2S 7C6, St-Hyacinthe, Canada
2 Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, J2S 7C6, St-Hyacinthe, Canada
3 University of Guelph, N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada
4 University of Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Winnipeg, Canada
5 Dalhousie University, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Canada
6 Risk Sciences International, K1P 6L5, Ottawa, Canada
7 Canadian Food Inspection Agency, K1A 0Y9, Ottawa, Canada
8 Canadian Food Inspection Agency, N1G 4S9, Guelph, Canada
9 Canadian Food Inspection Agency, H3A 3N2, Montreal, Canada

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is modernizing its risk-based approach to oversight which will allow prioritizing the allocation of inspection activities to areas of highest risk. This includes the development of a risk assessment model aimed at quantifying the risk associated with food establishments. The model concept is based on the allocation of risks to food establishments based on their impact upon the consumers’ health in Canada. The underlying principle is that the total impact expressed as Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) remains constant, but the proportion allocated to individual facilities is fluid.  This value takes into consideration the number of cases attributed to each food safety hazard yearly, their association to specific food commodities and products, and the health impact per case of illness for each hazard. The health impact is first allocated to individual establishments based on the volume of each product type they manufacture. The establishment-level health impact is then adjusted considering the presence or absence of specific food safety risk factors and their relative weights.

In designing the model algorithm, the identification and selection of significant risk factors was a critical step that was completed thorough an elicitation with 75 Canadian food safety experts. The selected risk factors were then grouped in four risk clusters (Incoming Materials, Establishment Food Safety Control System, Product Related Processes, and Environmental Controls) based on their close relationship. Finally, a second expert elicitation (2014) helped estimate the relative weight of each risk factor through a face-to-face Delphi approach.

The model has been tested in meat/poultry and dairy establishments and is currently being piloted in other commodities; and the model performance will be assessed by comparing the model outputs with the scores given by senior inspectors to establishments that participate in the pilot projects.


Pragmatic experiments to develop a risk culture in São Paulo
Jacques Lolive 1, Cintia Okamura 2
1 CNRS – National Center for Scientific Research of France, 38100, Grenoble, France
2 CETESB - Environmental Agency of the State of São Paulo, CEP: 05459-900, São Paulo, Brazil

Our Franco-Brazilian research cooperation brings together the PACTE and CRESSON laboratories of CNRS, CETESB - the environmental agency of the State of São Paulo - and the Faculty of Public Health of the University of Sao Paulo. The problematic is based on the hypothesis of the risk society which considers that risk has become the unsurpassable horizon of our modernity to the point of constituting henceforth our own living environment. Our research is based on this hypothesis in order to develop a new risk culture that is to experiment with participatory methods that allow the awareness of the population exposed. The choice of a pragmatist posture enabled us to articulate academic reflection, methodological experimentation and transformation of public action. Two pilot sites have been selected in the State of São Paulo: the Condomínio Barão de Mauá, where residents have been living for 16 years in a contaminated area (methane, benzene, etc.) and the oil terminal in the port of São Sebastião which encircles its center and residential neighborhoods. Launched in September 2014, our research will be completed by March 2019. During the first phase of diagnosis we experimented with two complementary methods. The study of risk ambiances allowed us to access the sensitive daily experience of the inhabitants of a risk area while the analysis of controversies allowed us to trace its social, environmental and political history. The second phase is experimenting with other methods to prepare the inhabitants of the pilot zones for the setting up of a risk forum, a dispositive designed to implement participatory and partnership-based risk management. In Mauá, the risk scene, a public meeting devoted to the controlled expression of the emotions of the inhabitants of the contaminated area, made it possible to appease their painful experience by pooling emotions and a form of acknowledgment by others. In São Sebastião, artistic simulation has produced a risk scenario to involve the public and generate debate with the institutions on the scenario and risk management systems. Then, the risk forum was set up in each of the sites to experiment with shared management. The results of this research will allow the drafting of communication and participation protocol which will be available as of March 2017 but will have to be adapted to the practices of the administrations and the companies before its implementation by the CETESB throughout the State of São Paulo as of March 2019.


Population Migration and Infrastructure Resilience: A Review of Theory and Practice
Krista Rand, Cody Fleming, PhD, Jim Lambert, PhD
University of Virginia, 22902, Charlottesville, United States

Population migration has exceeded 200 million per year worldwide for each of the past two years. The state of civil infrastructure at the points of origin of migrants is a key factor in mass displacements of people. Understanding the experiences of migrants and other vulnerable populations in disasters is of course essential to infrastructure resilience. Yet such understanding is sorely lacking as a basis for, e.g., resource allocation, recovery schedule, and setting of priorities on various time scales. A critical need in practice is avoidance of excess additional displacements of the most vulnerable populations.  

We present a review of literature and associated framework for assessing the maturity of current approaches to understanding and influencing population migration as it relates to infrastructure resilience. We use recent literature on recovery and resilience including Cimellaro et al. [Journal of Structural Engineering, 142.10 (2016)] to extend the framework of Fussell [American Behavioral Scientist, 59(10), 1231-1245, (2015)], establishing entry points for population displacement considerations in infrastructure interdependency models.

With respect to socially vulnerably populations, we propose evaluating infrastructure interdependency models along the following dimensions:

  • Recovery prioritization metrics
  • Relevant time factors (windows, time steps, duration, latencies, seasonality, day of week, time of day)
  • Spatial aspects of recovery
  • Use and handling of agents
  • Role of policy (e.g., pre-disaster and recovery planning)
  • Resource constraints

We analyze several recent models of historical situations and suggest opportunities to improve existing approaches or inform the development of new approaches.  This framework is most applicable to cases where conflict is not a contributing disturbance.

The results will be presented as case studies along with a mapping of migration, displacement and immobility considerations onto civil infrastructure systems.  The latter will be available in in tabular format alongside a data resource list to inform the art and practice of emergency management, risk communication, risk governance, and social and environmental justice.

Monday, June 19th - Room #2 - 15:45 - 17:15
Parallel Sessions - Evidence-based risk governance, policy and regulation II
How corporate governance and expectations impact on the probability of default: comparative analysis of industries in Russia
Alexey Rybalka
Center for macroeconomic analysis and short-trem forecasting (CMASF), 117186, Moscow, Russia
National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE), 101000, Moscow, Russia

The effective forecasting of default is crucial for financial institutions and other counterparties to make lending decisions and partnership agreements. In accordance with the recommendations of the Basel Committee on banking supervision risk analysis of corporate borrowers should incorporates external ratings of international rating agencies and internal ratings-based approach. Consistent with the Japanese philosophy of kaizen this approach has to regularly improve in order to correspond to changing market conditions. In our study we used a two-step Heckman selection model to solve the problem of sample selection bias. The first step is to develop a logistic regression to evaluate the probability of default. The second step is to develop OLS or GMM model (Heckman's lambda is used as one of the predictors) to evaluate the scale of the problem in the case of default. It is defined as "holes” in the capital of companies (negative net worth) - the book value of assets minus the book value of liabilities. According to our previous estimates corporate governance factors have a positive impact on the quality of the predicted probability of default models in Russian construction industry. As the dependent variable tested several modifications of default. Additionally we checked overfitting problem and after that have been tested two kinds of regularization (Ridge and Lasso) of logistic regression – result was sustainable. The following hypotheses were confirmed: other things being equal, the probability of default of the company is lower, if CEO is co-owner; other things being equal, the probability of default of the company is higher if the company is a subsidiary. Moreover the companies with small and more cohesive board of directors (co-owners) better overcome financial distress – possibly due to the greater flexibility and the ability to quickly make key decisions. Moreover we tested the hypothesis about the significance of company’s expectations about the volume of production and demand during a year to evaluate probability of default. In continuation of this topic we conducted a comparative analysis by manufacturing industry of Russia, results of which will be presented at the conference.


Applying CIREN data: An Investigation of Determinant Factors in Severe Road Traffic Accidents
Darren Shannon
University of Limerick, 0000, Limerick, Ireland

An extensive number of research studies have attempted to capture the factors that influence the severity of vehicle impacts. The high number of risks facing all traffic participants, inclusive of pedestrians, motorised and non-motorised transport, has led to a gradual increase in sophisticated data collection schemes linking crash characteristics to subsequent severity measures. This study combines the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) Crash Injury Research (CIREN) database for the years 2005–2014 with the Book of Quantum, an Irish governmental document that offers guidelines on the appropriate compensation to be awarded for injuries sustained in accidents. An Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Linear Regression is carried out to identify the crash factors that significantly influence expected compensation costs. The model offers encouraging results, attaining an adjusted R-squared fit of 20.7% when uninfluential factors are removed. It is found that relative speed at time of impact and vehicle age increase the expected costs, while incidents sustained both in the rain and while turning result in lower expected compensations, as do rear-end incidents. The scalar-outcome approach used in this research offers an alternative methodology to the discrete-outcome models that dominate traffic safety analyses by expanding on the flexibility afforded by random parameter and latent-class variable models. The results raise queries on the future development of claims reserving based on classic statistical models, as advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) seek to eradicate the most frequent types of crash factors on which insurance mathematics base their assumptions.


On transitioning to circular economy via environmental management systems and certification of organizations in risk and resilience
Estela Gonçalves Pereira 1, Desheng Wu 2, James H. Lambert 3
1 Independent Consultant, Estoril, Cascais, Portugal
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing and University of Stockholm, Sweden, Beijing, Beijing, China
3 University of Virginia, Virginia, Virginia, United States

A new paradigm of Circular Economy (CE) fosters the integration of several EU Policies (EU COM/2015/0614 final) related to environmental risk and resilience. CE addresses production supply chains across diverse industries; consumption patterns; life cycles of products and components; and social, environmental, and economic added value—while enabling a decoupling of economic growth and resource consumption (1). Involving a complex transition for society and industries, the CE will be a key enabler of sustainability and social and environmental justice. CE leads to reduced dependence on finite natural resources; a competitive, efficient and low-carbon economy; "closing the loop" of product and service lifecycles; reducing costs and supply chain risks; and generating economic and social value. (2). Various environmental management systems, such as the ISO 14001:2015 (3) are supporting organizations in the worldwide implementation of integrated actions and programmes with year-to-year progress of CE.

This talk will review recent progress in achieving the CE, with a particular focus on Environmental Management Systems and EU policies for environmental risk and resilience. Best practices and experiences on preventing wastes, using secondary raw materials, renewable energies, Eco-Design (4)(5), environmental and social education and awareness programmes (6), will be described. The talk describes how ISO-certified organizations are underway implementing related environmental legislation for maximizing resource productivity while minimising waste generation and resource extraction. Furthermore, the talk describes that contributions of ISO-certifications to the resilience of organizations that are leading the CE are positive and planned elements of the transformation, making the process less complex and legitimizing and maintaining the commitments of industries to effective adaptation and change. Several recommendations for next steps will be introduced and analyzed, including the roles of ISO management systems in the advancement of the CE and legislative actions with direct impacts to industries (4)(5).

 


A Methodology for Dynamic Security Risk Quantification and Optimal Resource Allocation of Security Assets
Robert Brigantic, Nicholas Betzsold, Craig Bakker, Javier Rubio Herrero, Casey Perkins, Angela Waterworth
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352, Richland, United States

In this presentation we overview a methodology for dynamic security risk quantification and optimal resource allocation of security assets for high profile venues.  This methodology is especially applicable to venues that require security screening operations such as mass transit (e.g., train or airport terminals), critical infrastructure protection (e.g., government buildings), and largescale public events (e.g., concerts or professional sports).  The method starts by decomposing the three core components of risk -- threat, vulnerability, and consequence -- into their various subcomponents.  For instance, vulnerability can be decomposed into availability, accessibility, organic security, and target hardness and each of these can be evaluated against the potential threats of interest for the given venue.  Once evaluated, these subcomponents are rolled back up to compute the specific value for the vulnerability core risk component.  Likewise, the same is done for consequence and threat, and then risk is computed as the product of these three components.  A key aspect of our methodology is dynamically quantifying risk.  That is, we incorporate the ability to uniquely allow the subcomponents and core components, and in turn, risk, to be quantified as a continuous function of time throughout the day, week, month, or year as appropriate.

The next step in our methodology is to assess the effectiveness of the different security assets, which may also include a deterrence factor, that can be used to counter the threats against the given venue.  Typically, security assets are a constrained resource, so the challenge is how to best deploy them to minimize risk over time.  Our approach is to formulate the problem as a mathematical program which is concerned with optimizing the allocation of limited resources between competing activities while simultaneously satisfying all constraints associated with the problem. Once formulated, this mathematical program can be solved by traditional methods to yield the best allocation of the constrained resources that minimize the overall venue risk.  Additional solution algorithms can also be invoked to help keep to the problem tractable when the number of variables involved becomes large.

Monday, June 19th - Foyer - 15:45 - 17:15
Parallel Sessions - Evidence-based risk governance, policy and regulation III
Gauging fear in the social-network era
Leonor Betterncourt 1, Frederico Francisco 2, Joana Gonçalves-Sá 2
1 Centro de Investigação e Intervenção Social (CIS-IUL), 1649-026, Lisboa, Portugal
2 Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, 2780-156, Oeiras, Portugal

During serious global crisis, such as pandemics, one of the most important emotions involved in decision-making is fear. Responses to fear are usually presented as “fight-or-flight”, but it is not obvious which attitude is chosen, under which circumstances, and by what fraction of the population. Therefore, monitoring collective emotions is fundamental to devise appropriate responses, anticipate risky practices, and compliance levels. However, measuring fear(s) is not trivial, neither at the individual nor at the collective levels and, for this reason, few studies have directly analysed its impact.

The response during an infectious disease outbreak is a clear example of when apparently rational individual actions (such as going to an emergency room or buying medication) can lead to collectively risky behaviours (such as overcrowding hospitals) and even panic (if medical supplies run out). Using the 2009 influenza pandemic as a case study we will present preliminary work showing it is possible to use searches on Google as a proxy for collective concern. This tool can be very promising, being considerably cheaper and faster than traditional methods.

First identified in late March 2009, in America, a new highly infectious flu virus spread to Europe and Asia within weeks; by June the WHO had declared a pandemic. This new strain was eventually found to be less virulent than feared and the overall death toll was relatively low. However, media reports were constant during this period and there were several manifestations of fear and anxiety. Our hypothesis, in line with sociological research, is that during the pandemic period, the levels of fear in the population were relatively high and that these levels positively correlated with trust in the authorities and with willingness to comply with imposed measures. The pandemic offered a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: it originated at least 60 surveys, covering 20 different countries, from January 2009 to December 2013, including two conducted by this research group. We collected these surveys and analysed anxiety levels, perceived-risk, intention to comply with and attitudes towards health authorities. We then tested whether searches for flu-related terms on Google could be a good proxy for fear levels by comparing weekly search-volumes with the results of the 60-survey analysis, actual numbers of flu cases and media reporting.

The results of this work can prove to be very effective in anticipating (and eventually helping to prevent) pandemics and other risk-prone situations, in a fast and effective manner.


Early Detection of the Flu Season
Miguel Won, Joana Gonçalves-Sá
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, 2780-156, Oeiras, Portugal

Individual decisions can have a large impact on society as a whole. Individuals decide how to vote, whether or not to stay at home when they feel sick, to drive or to take the bus. In isolation, these individual decisions have a negligible social outcome, but collectively they determine the results of an election and the start of an epidemic. For many years, studying these processes was limited to observing the outcomes or to analysing small samples. New data sources and data analysis tools have made it possible to start studying the behaviour of large numbers of individuals, enabling the emergence of large-scale quantitative social research.

Here, we present an application of these new datasets and methods to qualitatively gauge the probability of the onset of an epidemic, using influenza as a case study.

Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. However, very few papers have approached the problem of onset identification, usually focusing on peak prediction. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google (such as flu or fever), and, in the case of Portugal, an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24 (S24), we were able to reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work showed that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. This method is not limited to one country, specific region or language and, also due to both its simplicity and to the fact that it can be used with different input data, it can be used in early detection of other contagious or seasonal diseases. We also analysed a new and very useful data source: the on-call triage service S24, which receives and expertly responds to nationwide health-related phone calls, providing clinical advice. Being a triage system connected to the medical care network, it can serve to optimize services and direct patients to and away from emergency rooms. Such a system, when properly analysed, can be very useful for the quick identification of new epidemics or outbursts of diseases, whether contagious or not, local or global. 


Politicizing public opinion: the role of party identification for public opinion about nuclear energy
Tanja Perko 1, 2, Peter Thijssen 1, Edwin Latré 1, 2
1 Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, 2400, Mol, Belgium
2 University of Antwerp, 2000, Antwerp, Belgium

Due to concerns about climate change and energy security the salience of the energy production issue increased in many countries. In countries that produce nuclear energy these debates often focused on the role of nuclear energy in their national energy mix. Also in Belgium the debate on nuclear energy production re-emerged on the political agenda, when in 2015 the government decided to extend the operational life of the two oldest nuclear reactors with ten years, until 2025. According to the 2003 phase-out law both nuclear reactors should have closed in 2015. In this presentation results are shown of a study on the politicization of the nuclear energy production issue in Belgium (2014-2016), and how the political (elite) debate on this issue affected public opinion. Results were obtained by combining quantitative and qualitative analyses. Qualitative analysis was used to describe the elite debate on nuclear energy production, providing insights in the existing advocacy coalitions, and the role political parties play in these coalitions. Quantitative analysis was used to study public opinion formation on the issue of nuclear energy production (n=1028). Results show that even when controlling for important attitude predictors such as risk perception and benefit perception, vote intention has a net effect on attitude towards nuclear energy. Groups based on vote intention significantly differed in their attitude towards nuclear energy, indicating that certain groups in the public became politicized as a result of the elite debate on the issue. We therefore argue that political affiliation can help to explain how people form their opinion on complex and risk related issues. Results of this study are therefore useful to understand how elite politicization affects public opinion on other complex issues, such as climate change.


Anticipating or Accommodating to Public Concern? Risk Amplification and the Politics of Precaution Re-examined
Jamie Wardman 1, Ragnar Lofstedt 2
1 University of Nottingham, NG8 1BB, Nottingham, United Kingdom
2 King's College London, WC2R 2LS, London, United Kingdom

Regulatory use of the Precautionary Principle (PP) tends to be broadly characterized either as a responsible approach for safeguarding against health and environmental risks in the face of scientific uncertainties, or as ‘state mismanagement’ driven by undue political bias and public anxiety. However, the ‘anticipatory’ basis upon which governments variably draw a political warrant for adopting precautionary measures often remains ambiguous. Particularly, questions arise concerning whether the PP is employed pre-emptively by political elites from the ‘top-down’, or follows from more conventional democratic pressures exerted by citizens and other stakeholders from the ‘bottom-up’. Addressing this issue, this paper aims to elucidate citizen involvement in the precautionary politics shaping policy discourse and decision-making surrounding the UK Government’s ‘precautionary approach’ to mobile telecommunications technology and health. A case study is presented that critically re-examines the basis upon which UK Government action has been portrayed as an instance of anticipatory policymaking. Findings demonstrate that the use of the PP should not be understood in the pre-emptive terms communicated by UK Government officials alone, but must be interpreted in relation to the wider social context of the social amplification of risk and images of public concern in precautionary discourse formed between citizens, politicians, industry, and the media, which surrounded cycles of government policymaking. The paper concludes with discussion concerning the sociocultural conditions, political dynamics, and policy assumptions underpinning public influence on government anticipation and responsiveness, along with implications for how society subsequently comes to terms with the emergence and precautionary governance of new technologies.


Risk assessment, safety and Brexit
Laurence Ball-King
King's College London, E148NT, London, United Kingdom

The motivations behind the United Kingdom's Brexit vote have yet to be fully comprehended. One thing which is clear, however, is that the reasons are complex and to some extent may have limited or indirect connection with a belief that the additional requirements of EU legislation create an unnecessary burden on British business. In this paper a possible contributory thread associated with the bureaucracy of health and safety management is explored. The UK has, of course, been required to comply with European health and safety legislation, notably the 1989 European Council Framework Directive 89/391/EEC (CEC 1989). Contemporaneously, though not necessarily strongly connected if at all, there has been an explosion in bureaucratic requirements for firms and public bodies with regard to health and safety including, in particular, a need to document risk assessments. Record keeping of this kind has become a significant preoccupation for all organisations, large or small, including not just factories and businesses but also health, educational and leisure establishments. The impact has been widespread affecting all corners of society and is a frequent topic of conversation. In 2012 the former Prime Minister, David Cameron, noted that cost of this health and safety culture “runs into the billions each year”, and “saps personal responsibility and drains enterprise.” Many other commentators have drawn attention to this apparent burden. The British government responded with a series of reviews and measures aimed at reversing the spread of this culture and restoring the then damaged reputation of health and safety in the eyes of the public. This paper explores the origins of these bureaucratic requirements, and finds that the reality of how they came about is more complex than at first glance, and is not wholly attributable to the EU. Indeed, some of the problems may be of the UK’s own making. It goes on to examine some potential contributory factors to the current situation.

Monday, June 19th - Hall (Rooms 1-2) - 17:15 - 18:30
- Specialty groups mixers & drinks
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Sponsored by the Risk Communication Specialty Group (RCSG), Society for Risk Analysis
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Monday, June 19th - Hall (Rooms 1-2) - 17:15 - 18:30
Standard Poster Session - Standard poster presentations
Public attitudes regarding energy demand in the UK: Effect of public perceptions on public actions
George Warren
King's Centre for Risk Management King's College London, WC2R 2LS, London, United Kingdom

Climate change continues to be a growing risk, yet much attention has been placed on changing energy supply, rather than altering energy demand. This dissertation aims to understand the importance of energy efficiency and consumption (EE&C) to UK publics, and understand the relationship between EE&C and varying public perceptions of climate change in the UK. 100 members of the public in South Buckinghamshire and Tower Hamlets were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative methods. There is a relationship between EE&C uptake and increased public perceptions of climate change, however further analysis of barriers, and the added local comparative analysis suggests there is no single, general route to successful EE&C policy implementation in the UK, whether on a national or local level. Knowledge-based, trust-based, and cognitive barriers are found to affect uptake of EE&C methods. Knowledge and understanding of most effective energy-saving behavioural changes remains lower, and divergent, to expert understanding. Variations between groups in the two survey sites suggest that singular and centralised government climate policy should not be as prevalent in promoting EE&C schemes, instead transferring power to local authorities with greater trust levels. Research conducted and data presented in a dissertation as part of an MSc in Risk Analysis at King’s College London.


Acute hemodynamic changes from exposure to Ractopamine in rat models of cardiovascular disease
Tsun-Jen Cheng 1, Pei-Jing Tsai 1, Jiun-Jr Wang 2, Hui-I Hsieh 3
1 College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, 111, Taipei, Taiwan
2 School of Medicine, Fu Jen University, 242, New Taipei City, Taiwan
3 Department of Family Medicine, Cathay Hospital, 106, Taipei, Taiwan

Ractopamine (RAC), a β-adrenergic agonist, has been used as a feed additive to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat. However, the data about adverse effects of RAC have been limited and only in healthy animals and human subjects. In this study, we compared the hemodynamic effects of RAC in healthy and atherosclerotic Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

Male healthy WKY rats, atherosclerotic WKY rats, SHRs were administered with RAC at dosage levels of 0, 3, 9 and 27 mg/kg body weight by gastric intubation. Hemodynamic parameters including heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured using a high-fidelity pressure-volume catheter positioned in the chamber of left ventricle, and two high-fidelity pressure transducers at the left carotid and femoral arteries of each rat. Data were collected from 5 minutes (min) before exposure to 60 min after exposure. The data were analyzed on a beat-to-beat basis and reported as 2- or 5- min periods.

Increase of HR and CO, and decrease of TPR were observed since the first 5-10 min in the high-dose groups for healthy rats, and SBP was significantly decreased at the early experimental period then returned to the baseline. While in the SHRs, the changes of HR, CO and TRP were more prominent as compared to healthy rats, and SBP remained low through the observation period. The changes of HR, CO and TRP in atherosclerotic WKY rats were similar to healthy rats, except for the increase of TRP in the moderate dose group. Thus, SBP was not decreased for the high dose group, while SBP was elevated in the moderate-dose group.

Our results suggest that subjects with cardiovascular risk factors may be more susceptible to the adverse effects of RAC. Thus, the safety factor for RAC regulation needs to be further evaluated in the susceptible population with cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. 

 


Nuclear Information in Cyber Space: What Brings out Polarized Attitude toward Nuclear Power in the Cyber Space?
Joo Hwang, Seoyong Kim, Sang-Seok Bae
Ajou University, 16499, Suwon, Korea, Republic of (South)

Due to the development of the internet and communication devices, communication and information transmission on the internet have developed much more than in the past. In particular, internet users faced the polarized attitude in cyberspace, in which polarized attitude significantly influences other judgement about risk objects. However, there are very few studies. Thus, this study aims to analyze which causal factors to influence the polarized attitude toward nuclear energy. For this study, we analyzed the 1572 online survey data and used the statistical package of SPSS Statistics 22.

In analytical model, we set up the polarized attitude as dependent variable. This variable were measured by two items: My online attitude toward nuclear power is even more extreme than offline” and “If you look at the nuclear information on the internet, you can think of nuclear power more extreme than usual”. Also, to analyze the causes of polarization in the online environment, not offline, we select the psychometric paradigm and cyber psychological factors as independent variables. The first includes benefit, risk, stigma, knowledge and trust. The second includes the (1) the degree of addiction into online, (2) belief in anonymity, (3) trust toward the cyberspace, (4) motivation, and (5) the efficacy. We believe that our studies will contribute to show the structure and its causes of polarized attitude toward nuclear energy in cyberspace.


 Effects of affect, procedural fairness and trust on public acceptance of siting a repository for radioactive contaminated wastes.
Shoji Ohtomo 1, Yukio Hirose 2, Susumu Ohnuma 3
1 Konan Women's University, 6580001, Kobe, Japan
2 Kansai University, 5691098, Takatsuki, Japan
3 Hokkaido University, 0600808, Sapporo, Japan

Objectives: Disposal of designated wastes that are radioactive contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident is a primary issue in Japan since the candidate site has not been decided yet for over five years. Siting repositories for such risky wastes often faces an opposition from residents. This study examined the determinants of public acceptance of siting a repository for designated wastes, focusing on procedural fairness and trust. Although procedural fairness and trust have revealed the significant factors on public acceptance, affect sometimes alters the acceptance. Therefore, affect might detract the effects of procedural fairness and trust. The study presumed that affective reaction moderates the effects of procedural fairness and trust on public acceptance. To examine the presumption, the study implemented a hypothetical scenario experiment that manipulated two factors: a reflection of public opinions (voice) as an antecedent of procedural fairness and similarity value to authority as a component of trust.

Method: 289 people participated in the web-based experiment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: voice (high vs. low) × similarity (high vs. low) factorial design associated with acceptance of siting investigation for the designated wastes. The experiment measured affective reaction to the siting, and evaluations of procedural fairness, trust, public acceptance in the decision-making process.

Results: Process analyses were used to test the moderating effect of affective reaction to the mediated process of the manipulations (i.e. voice and trust) through evaluations (i.e. procedural fairness and trust). Results indicated that voice determined public acceptance by way of evaluation of procedural fairness. Moreover, similarity determined public acceptance by way of evaluation of trust. In addition to the direct effects of affective reaction to procedural fairness, trust and public acceptance, the interactive effect of affective reaction × similarity on trust was found. A moderated mediated test indicated that the effect of similarity on public acceptance was strengthened when the affective reaction was negative. However, the interactive effect of affective reaction × voice on procedural fairness was not found.

Conclusion: The results showed that trust based on similarity was susceptible to affect, while the process of voice through procedural fairness to public acceptance was not susceptible to the affective reaction. Procedural fairness based on the opportunity of voice might be a stable determinant of public acceptance regardless of people’s affect. This study suggested the significance of procedural fairness beyond affective reaction for the public acceptance of siting a facility for designated wastes.


Injury Pyramid of Japan: An Estimate
Yoshiki Mikami, Kun Zhang
Nagaoka University of Technology, 940-2188, Nagaoka, Japan

How many people get injured in a year? This question is simple but difficult to answer and not always available from the existing mortality and morbidity statistics. European Union publishes this estimate every year in a pyramid like format by “EuroSafe” report. On top of the pyramid there is the number of accidental deaths. The second layer is the number of people got injured and hospitalized. The bottom layer is the number of outpatients. While in Japan, no efforts has been made so far to make this estimate, the authors has made an attempt to produce it for the first time in Japan. There is a few sources of data. The number of death is taken from mortality statistics, where all kinds of fatal accident casualties, traffic accident fatalities and other unintentional injuries at home, school, etc., homicides, assaults, self-suicides are included. The second layer estimate is taken from Hospital Statistics, an annual survey by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan, which gives the number of inpatients at a chosen date in October every year. As average length of days of hospitalization is available from the same statistics, the total number of inpatients in a year can be calculated from these two figures. The bottom layer estimate is the most difficult to get. Authors calculated it using Hospital Statistics and Medical Care Insurance Payment database. Hospital Statistics gives the number of outpatients at a chosen date and an average number of times of hospital visits, but the estimate of outpatients from these two figures seems overestimated, because of possible duplicated counts of those patients who took cared by more than two hospitals, in parallel or consecutively. In order to avoid this duplication of counts, the authors analyzed Medical Care Insurance Payment database. Every year, billions of personal medical care payments records are produced. These are stored at the central database, which has been inaccessible to the public for long years. The Japanese government, however, recently decided to allow access to this database to promote the useful datamining efforts by private sectors, local governments, and academic researchers. All records are anonymized but the hash-ID is given for all patients and it makes possible to identify personal medical care history. By using this database, the authors estimated average times of hospital visits of outpatients. The study gives this estimates, methodology and comparisons with European Union.


Testing the Cross-over Effect of Risk Perception and Cyber Factors on the On/Off-Line Oppositions toward Nuclear Power Energy
Seoyong Kim 1, Sunhee Kim 2
1 Department of Public Administration, Ajou University, 16499, Suwon, Korea, Republic of (South)
2 Department of Public Administation, Seowon University, 28674, Cheongjoo, Korea, Republic of (South)

As the internet age comes, lot of information about risk events and objects flows in cyber space. Since on-line and off-line is not discrete, there is cross-over effect: The perceptual or attitudinal factors in cyber space influence the off-line action whereas off-line attitude has the impact on-line action. However, there are no studies over such cross-over effect.

Based on survey data, we will examine such ‘cross-over effect’. For this work, we adopt the on-line, off-line opposition toward nuclear power energy as dependent variables. As dependent variables, we set up the risk perception factor (i.e., including perceived risk, perceived benefit, trust, knowledge, and stigma) and cyber factor (i.e., anonymity, trust, bandwagon, motivation, efficacy).

Our studies will provide the empirical evidences for understanding the cross-over effect of on-line or off-line predictors on the on-line, off-line opposition toward nuclear power energy.

 


Beyond HSM (Heuristic-Systematic Information Processing Model): Exploring the Function of REM (Rational-Emotional Information Processing Model) in Risk Judgement
Seoyong Kim 1, Sunhee Kim 2
1 Department of Public Administration, AJou University, 16499, Suwon, Korea, Republic of (South)
2 Department of Public Administration, Seowon University, 28674, Cheongjoo, Korea, Republic of (South)

As people receive a lot of information from risk events and objects, they process such information by adopting specific information processing models. HSM(Heuristic-Systematic Information Process Model) suggested by Shelly Chaiken (1980), is well known model in information processing: The heuristic mode uses the least amount of cognitive processing and is governed by availability, accessibility, and applicability. The systematic mode involves more effortful processing to comprehend, analyze, and determine the reliability of the information.

Although HSM well explains the risk information processing, it has some limits; It does not cover the processing attributes such as rational or emotional ones because it gave heavily priority on the elaboration of processing. The information processing mechanism should include not only degree of elaboration abut also attributes of processing.

Based on survey data, we will test the function of REM(the power of Rational-Emotional Information Processing Model), compared to HSM in acceptance of nuclear power energy. We examine both how direct effect of REM and HSM on the acceptance occurs and in which ways two process models (REM, HSM) moderate the relationships between antecedents (perceived risk, perceived benefit, knowledge, trust and stigma) and predicted variable (acceptance of nuclear power).

Our researches will provide the evidences for new alternative information processing models in risk judgement.

 


EVALUATION OF ACCESSIBILITY TO EVACUATION AREAS
Yasin Sezer Turk, Tugba Ozer, Handan Kaplan, Nergiz Kayki, Goktug Koseahmet, Seda Kundak
Istanbul Technical University, 34437, Istanbul, Turkey

Earthquake risk researches are usually focused on the probable effects of seismic tremors on most vulnerable parts of the city. In the case of Istanbul, these parts are defined with their unplanned (in some zones noted as illegal) development since 1950s, low quality of building and lack of urban facilities. Therefore, recently enacted legislation for urban regeneration has targeted these vulnerable zones of the city to reduce earthquake related risks. On the other hand, relatively resilient and resistant parts of the city have to deal with their limited spatial flexibility to minimize the aftermath disaster chaos. Located in a central district of Istanbul, Beşiktaş is one of these areas. After the Marmara earthquake in 1999, the Beşiktaş municipality has identified evacuation areas (or gathering points) at many different points of the district, most of which are public open spaces. However, considering the high building and population density of the district, narrow roads and limited urban space; the efficiency of these evacuation areas is to be examined.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the evacuation areas in the frame of the population that they would give service in the event of a possible earthquake and to measure the accessibility to these areas. The study area is examined in how to provide access to people, where access is not possible and how to take precautions. Moreover, Beşiktaş, which has an old urban pattern, has been investigated where disturbances are likely to be experienced due to the narrow roads in the city.


People risk and the approach to operational risk management in banks: old threats and new tools
Kumbirai Mabwe 1, Patrick Ring 2, Robert Webb 3
1 1.University of South Wales, CF37 1DL, Pontypridd, United Kingdom
2 Glasgow Caledonian University, G4 0BA, Glasgow, United Kingdom
3 University of Nottingham, NG7 2QL, Nottingham, United Kingdom

The significance of operational risk in banks has for some time attracted attention as a result of high profile and costly risk failures. Traditionally, banks, along with much of the academic research in the area, have largely concentrated on the most measurable elements of operational . However, this has resulted in the relative neglect of a key element of operational risk; people risk, despite the fact that, most operational risks are ultimately the result of ‘people’ failure, whether at strategic, managerial or operational level. Th e current paper attempts to address this neglect by examining people risk in the context of operational risk management in UK banks. Through interviewing operational risk managers, senior financial institution operatives and operational risk consultants working in financial institutions, the paper investigates how banks incorporate the practices, processes and techniques employed in people risk management into their overall operational risk management processes and systems. The results show that, whilst banks are exposed to operational risk as a result of people at divisional, institutional and top management level, the skillset, structures, processes and practices for managing people risk are still in their infancy. The results also suggest a potential framework for people risk management which has implications both for the three lines of defence approach adopted by many banks, as well as for their human resources policies.


Analysis of Determinants for Opposition Actions toward Nuclear Power in Cyberspace Focusing the Role of Identity
Sehyeok Jeon, Seoyong Kim, Junhan Kim
Ajou University, 16496, Suwon, Korea, Republic of (South)

Our study will examine how Internet users‘ online identity as independent variable influences the opposition actions toward the nuclear energy. So, our study will review the previous researches about the role of identity in cyberspace.

As many researches about identity have been done in psychology, they applies the concept of identity to understand the behaviors in cyberspace. However, there are very few studies to examine the role of identity in judging the risk related with nuclear power issues. Today, the overall discourse about or the opposition to the nuclear power energy occurred in cyberspace. The results from online communications influence the attitude which the public hold about nuclear energy. Therefore, it is important to understand the online action and its cause.

Based on the online survey data, our study will examine the role of identity to opposing actions toward nuclear power in cyberspace.

For this work, we set up two opposition action as dependent variables: (1) the intention to diffuse the information related to the opposition about nuclear power energy, (2) opposition action such as the participation in the petition toward nuclear power or in making the replies and writings related with the opposition. Also, we select the identity in cyberspace as the main independent variable under controlling (1) the degree of addiction into online, (2) belief in anonymity, (3) trust toward the cyberspace, (4) perceived risk-benefit and (5) knowledge about nuclear power.

Our studies will highlight whether online identity influences the intentions to diffusion and opposition behaviors related with the nuclear power.


A Study on Korean Universities’ Formation of Slack Resources against the Financial Risk
Sang-Seok Bae 1, Donggeun Kim 2
1 Professor in the Department of Public Administration, Ajou University, 16499, Suwon city, Korea, Republic of (South)
2 Professor in the Department of Economics, Ajou University, 16499, Suwon city, Korea, Republic of (South)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate on factors that would influence on Korean universities’ formation of slack resources which are saved against future financial risks. In general, an organization's slack resource is known as the safety mechanism to cope with any possible financial risks in the future, which gets many scholars’ attention to study on it. There have been relatively many previous studies on the slack resource of governments or firms. However, research on that of university level have rarely been found especially in Korea because university foundations (or owners) hardly invest in their universities so that excessive slack resources can be considered as a part of current tuition savings. In other words, enrolled students are more likely to receive educational services that do not meet their tuition fees.

    Despite considerable interest in the level and nature of university’s slack resource, there has been only little academic research in this area. Since there have been very few studies that systemically analyzed the cause and reasons for universities’slack resources, our study will mainly focus on the structural determinants of slack resources by examining data collected from FY2013~FY2015 budget and settlement reports of Korean universities.

    In any organization, it is a natural phenomenon that makes consistent underestimation of revenue forecast to form excess resources (Voorhess, 2006). Hendrick (2006) also points out that an organization’s under-forecasting of revenue is one of the most important factors to form slack resources. Besides under-forecasting managerial practice, this study considers various variables such as the governmental grant, budget management practice, and volatility of revenues to find out crucial factors influencing on a university’s slack resources.

    The procedure for this research is as follows: First, we investigate whether the level of university’s slack resource is enough or too high to cope with its financial risks. Second, based upon the findings from the first stage,this study will be focused on the Korean universities’ strategy to save and maintain slack resources at the desirable level.

    The finding of this study is expected to contribute further understanding of the financial management practice in private universities.


The Empirical Analysis of Confirmation Biases toward Negative Online Information about Nuclear Power: Comparing the Role of the Cyber and Psychometric-paradigm
Sehyeok Jeon, Seoyong Kim, Sung-Man Hong
Ajou University, 16496, Suwon, Korea, Republic of (South)

Our study will examine how the risk perception paradigm and psychometric-paradigm as independent variable affect the confirmation bias about negative online information related with nuclear power energy. For this purpose, this study examined the risk perception paradigm and cyber psychometric-paradigm.

The studies about confirmation and its cause were done in psychology. As sharing information on the Internet is very common, In information related to risk is spreading rapidly among internet users. However, when information spreads, there is few researches to find the cause confirmation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the reason for confirmation to the negative information related to nuclear power energy. confirmation is related to attitudes toward nuclear power energy. therefore, It is important to analyze the influencing factors that cause the confirmation.

This study is based on online survey data. And we study the role of risk perception paradigm and psychometric-paradigm on confirmation bias.

For this work, we set up confirmation as a dependent variable. The confirmation was measured through internet users’s attitudes after encountering negative information. Independent variables were selected the risk perception paradigm (trust, knowledge, risk, benefit, emotion) and cyber psychometric-paradigm(addiction, anonymity, online identity, motivation, efficacy, trust). This study is conducted through regression analysis. We also examine how risk perception paradigm variables and psychometric-paradigm variables affect confirmation and compare their effects.


Analyzing the Effect of Multidimensional Trust on Opposition to Nuclear Power Energy: Focusing on the Trust in Cyberspace
Miri Kim, Seoyong Kim, Seongbin Park
Ajou University, 16499, Suwon, Korea, Republic of (South)

Modern society faced various fears from risks, e. g., nuclear power energy. As the cyberspace has developed, internet users usually share their thoughts on risk issues. Distrust in information from internet brings out the fear to the public. The various social fears in risk society cannot be reduced if the people do not trust the information from the internet. And moreover, if there is antipathy toward subjects disseminating the information, it is hard to implement the policy successfully. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the issues of trust in information on the internet in case of nuclear power energy.

A lot of studies have conceptually focused on trust. However, there are few empirical study about the diverse trust. Based on reflecting the limits of existing researches, this study is to examine whether or not the opposition in online and offline opposition which is assumed to be influenced by multidimensional trust. For this work, we set up such opposition action toward nuclear power energy in online and offline as dependent variables. As an independent variable we adopt the factor from perception paradigm (perceived benefit, perceived risk, safety knowledge and stigma) and for trust in cyberspace (trust in government, trust in public, trust in information source and trust in information).

By analyzing survey data from internet users, we expect the following implications. First, we can provide empirical evidences about the effect of trusts on opposition to nuclear power energy. Second, such effect can be differed according to online or offline context.


Analysis of Determinants for Attitude Change in Nuclear Power Energy in Cyberspace
Miri Kim 1, Seoyong Kim 1, Jaebok Joo 2
1 Ajou University, 16499, Suwon, Korea, Republic of (South)
2 Korea Research Institute for Local Administration, 06647, Seoul, Korea, Republic of (South)

As the information society has arrived, without constraints from time and space, it is possible to acquire the vast amount of information easily. Information exchanges between individuals and individuals, individuals and groups, groups and groups have become than before. The discourse about risk objects, e.g., the nuclear power energy, has been created in cyberspace. Hence, it is important to understand how the factor in cyber space influences the attitude or attitude change that people have toward the nuclear power energy. However, there are very few studies about this issue.

The purpose of this study is to analyze the attitude change and its determinants. For this work, we measured how people changed their attitude toward nuclear power energy after received the negative information about it. Then, we set up such attitude change as dependent variable. As independent variables to have impact on such attitude change, we adopt the factor from paradigm (perceived benefit, perceived risk, safety knowledge, stigma, and trust) and cyber matrix paradigm (anonymity, trust in cyberspace, bandwagon disposition, motivation and efficacy).

By analyzing survey data from Internet users (n=1572), we expect following theoretical and practical implications. First, we show whether or not it is possible to change the attitude in cyber space. Second, we will provide which factors contribute to explaning about attitude change.


The Analysis of Trust with the Risk Information about the Nuclear Power in Cyberspace
Joo Hwang 1, Seo-yong Kim 1, Jung-yul Kim 2
1 Ajou University, 16499, Suwon, Korea, Republic of (South)
2 Daegu University, 38453, Gyeongsan, Korea, Republic of (South)

Nuclear energy is one of issues about international interest. In particular, nuclear power energy explains 7.2% of the world's energy consumption . However, there is a fear of social/economic risks and still unknown risks from nuclear power. The worry has increased after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Fukushima nuclear disaster. In Korea, conflicts over nuclear power generation have increased because of the Fukushima accident and the conflict over facility citing for nuclear waste. Moreover, with the development of IT, people in modern society exchange a lot of information about nuclear power energy through cyberspace. Therefore, it is important to know whether or not people trust in the information on internet about nuclear power energy. Our study examine which factors influence the trust in information about nuclear power energy in cyberspace.

Based on 1572 survey data, we analyze in which way a kind of the risk information about the nuclear power in cyberspace was trusted. The information in trust was divided into two types: trust in information provided by the public and one in information provided by the government. We assumed that trust in information will depends on different causal factors.

To know the determinants for trust, we consider socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, education, and income as independent variables. Next we examine the explanatory power of psychometric paradigm(P. slovic, B. Fischoff, S. Lichtenstein, E. peters, J. Flynn, etc.) in which the perceived risk/benefit, trust, stigma and knowledge have been analyzed. Moreover, we will analyze the role of variables in cyberspace such as conformity to risk information, usefulness of information, identity, and anonymity.

This study will contribute to finding out the causal factor to influence the trust in information about nuclear power energy in cyberspace.


Measuring PV technical potential, financial feasibility, and associated societal benefits for higher education institutions in the United States
Nichole Hanus, Inês Azevedo, Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, Alex Davis
Carnegie Mellon University, 15213, Pittsburgh, United States

In 2015, approximately 67% of total electricity generated in the United States came from fossil fuel sources, while less than 1% came from solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In the same year, electricity generation accounted for approximately 40% of total U.S. carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Solar PV can significantly reduce emissions of CO2 and other harmful pollutants, which have asymmetric negative effects for at-risk populations such as asthmatics, the elderly, and low-income families. Although there is a significant literature on the diffusion of solar PV throughout the residential sector, little is known regarding solar PV’s potential among educational institutions. Therefore, our research identifies the technical and financial feasibility of installing PV on higher education facilities throughout the U.S. with a particular focus on the societal benefits associated with offsetting traditional electricity generation methods. The primary output of this model is a cost-benefit analysis for each higher education institution in the U.S. aggregated at the county level. To determine building locations and counts, we rely on a comprehensive list of higher education facilities in the U.S. developed in a previous Carnegie Mellon University project that detailed campus sustainability strategies and assessments. We combine this building dataset with hourly solar irradiance data available from the National Solar Radiation Data Base. Next, we estimate PV technical potential at the building-level using our combined building/solar dataset and other standard assumptions for such inputs as PV specifications. To assess the financial feasibility, we estimate the average prices of electricity from Open EI and obtain incentive information from DSIRE and North Carolina State’s 50 States of Solar. Project costs include installation, operation, maintenance and financing costs where applicable; costs are estimated using the NREL OpenPV dataset. Quantified benefits include savings from avoided electricity costs and regional environmental and health benefits, estimated with our own existing model that incorporates emissions and damages data from such sources as the EPA’s Continuous Emissions Monitoring System and the Air Pollution Emissions Experiments and Policy analysis (AP2) model. We also identify which schools in our model are located near low-income communities and have a unique opportunity to promote clean energy generation for at-risk populations. Finally, we validate the technical and cost savings potential outputs of our model with Google’s Project Sunroof and PVWatts. Our research identifies regions that can benefit the most from solar PV on higher education institutions, which stand to be leaders of sustainability in their communities.


What Makes the Confidence about Rumors about Nuclear Power Energy?
Jihye Kim, Seoyong Kim, Dongeun Kim
Ajou University, 16499, Suwon, Korea, Republic of (South)

The purpose of this study is to understand what causes the confidence in rumor about the nuclear power in the internet. There have been many previous studies on the factors that make people trust in rumors. However, it is difficult to find the previous researches about the degree of confidence in rumor. The trust in rumor and rumor confidence are similar, but have different meanings. Rumor confidence is the degree of assurance and belief in reliability of rumors.

Based on the survey data collected from Internet users(N=1572), we will analyze what makes the confidence about rumors in the internet about nuclear power energy. For this end, we set up the degree of confidence in rumor related with nuclear power energy as dependent variables. To find the causal factor, based on the theoretical review, we choose the fifteen independent variables from psychometric paradigm in risk reserch, communication studies, and cyberspace reserch.  

We believe that our studies will provide the empirical evidences about causal structure of rumor.


Noise Environmental Impact and Management by On & Off shore Wind Farm
Song sunyoung 1, Pak Seongbin 2, Park Joowon 3
1 Ajou university, 16499, Suwon city, Korea, Republic of (South)
2 Ajou university, 16499, Suwon city, Korea, Republic of (South)
3 New&Renewable Energy Committee of Korea People's Party, 07238, Seoul, Korea, Republic of (South)

Nowdays in south Korea has a lot of New&Renewable Energy's effect with social problem such as Noise, electromagnetic waves, low frequency oscillation and so on. Most of all, Wind power plant are account for a large percentage among the renewable energy. However, in the dissemination process of wind power plant, it has emerged the impact on the environment such as wind turbine noise. Currently, wind power plant are subject of environmental impact assessment. However,it is applying the general environmental noise standard when assessing the influence of the wind turbine noise. Therefore, it must be provided wind turbine noise standard for consideration of the characteristics of low frequency sound. In this study, we examined the characteristics of complaint by the wind turbine noise exposure. Also, analyze the measurement and evaluation method of wind turbine noise in the major countries. Finally, we presented the environmental impact assessment draft of the wind turbine noise.

 

 


The framework of public participation in environmental policy for resilience and adaptation by comparing the case studies.
Etsuko Yoshida 1, Hiroshi Kagemoto 2, Yoshiaki Akutsu 1
1 Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 2770882, kashiwa, Japan
2 Faculty of applied information technology, Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, 8510193, Nagasaki, Japan

Environmental policies are addressing the issues closely related to public life such as waste disposal or energy problem. In environmental problems, residents and public organizations are concerned about the influence of the risk and the uncertainty of science and technology to the public health and livelihood. Thus, it is necessary to consider countermeasures that can obtain understanding of a diversity of public based on the variety of scholars’ expertise about science and social problems at national level environmental policies. In the policy related to environmental recovery by risk assessment and risk management about chemical substances, technical discussions tend to be mainly conducted. For such occasion, the adaptation which needs public understanding is not carried out. In the biodiversity, public participation is realized. For example, a law proposed by Member of Parliament to the Diet based on the "basic wildlife protection law (draft)" planned by citizen groups is formally legislated.

Therefore, in this study, we conducted case studies by text mining of minutes and observation survey in the policies of the environmental recovery and the biodiversity at the national level. According to the results, we revealed that expert committee is biased in engineering and public participation is unguaranteed in the policy making process of the environmental recovery. In the biodiversity, the network among the expert committee with various fields, species, and parties, public organization, and Member of Parliament was built.  

In the environmental recovery, after the problems are exposed, at first, the risk assessment and the risk management is examined only by the scientific discussion and, the discussion for social issue by public participation in the policy making process is not examined without the advice of expert committee(1). In the biodiversity, the necessity of the public activity to achieve the common goals of conservation and protection of the natural environment and species is recognized. Thus, the public participation is realized from the stage of the agenda setting in the policy of the biodiversity.

In this study, we proposed a framework of public participation that enables resilience and adaptation from the risk and the uncertainty in future environmental problems. We concluded that it is urgent to create a network and program in the policy making process for discussion from both science and society and collaboration of various scholars of expert committees and diversity of publics about the risk and the uncertainty of science and technology for future environmental problems.


The notion of human induced influenza pandemics - a risk based scenario with highly pathogenic modified avian influenza A(H5N1).
Björn Nevhage 1, 2, Roger Roffey 1
1 FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, 164 90, Stockholm, Sweden
2 KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, 10044, Stockholm, Sweden

Influenza pandemics are usually naturally occurring phenomena. It is not a question if but when the next pandemic will happen. In order to manage future pandemics, pandemic preparedness plans have been developed. In Europe, all 28 member states of the European Union (EU) have influenza pandemic preparedness plans in place. However, it is impossible to know when the next pandemic will occur or which influenza virus strain will cause it. There are several potential pandemic pathogens, most notably the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) (also known as the “Bird flu”). Several scientific research teams have, since 2012, created HPAI A(H5N1) virus that can  efficiently be transmitted in aerosol between mammals such as ferrets. Consequently, this have generated a debate on the potential risks involved with this type of research, unintentional and intentional releases. In this article, we discuss the potential risk of an influenza pandemic induced by humans, either intentional by terrorists or states or unintentional by a release from a research laboratory with H5N1. The foundation for this discussion is the resultst from the Swedish National Risk Assessment pandemic scenario from 2013 togehter with the risks of intentional or unintentional release of a pandemic virus.  


Can traditional didactic models be used in education for the unforeseen?
Herner Saeverot 1, Glenn-Egil Torgersen 2, Ane Malene Saeverot 3, Siv Kristin Yndestad Borgen 1
1 Department of Education, Western Norway University, 5020, Bergen, Norway
2 Norwegian Defence University College, 0015, Oslo, Norway
3 University of Bergen, 5020, Bergen, Norway

Based on the concept of the ”unforeseen” we argue that traditional didactic models are not sufficient as strategic planning models for education and training where the unexpected is involved. The reason being that traditional models are subject to goals and objectives, which are missing as soon as education is preoccupied with unforeseen events. Hence, there is a need to find structures that can replace traditional didactic thinking. This presentation gives a brief introduction of principles for new educational factors which we describe as ”didactic levels of the unforeseen”, as a contribution to a more comprehensive and flexible didactic model with regard to education and training for unforeseen events. For example, such an education may consist of discussions related to awareness of certain danger signals in society. Such an organizational and didactical thinking will not only be relevant for those working in schools and the education system, but for all sorts of works, as part of a strategic development of competence for employees and managers. The didactic model is also open for unforeseen events that do not involve dangerous incidents and situations, for example situations that spontaneously appear in a class, or situations that differ from that which is planned.


Empirical Analysis of Attitude Change after Fukushima Nuclear Accident through Multilevel Modeling
Sangseok Bae, Seoyong Kim
Ajou University, 16499, suwon, Korea, Republic of (South)

After Fukushima accident broke out, several countries around the world change have changed their policy toward nuclear power. Such policy turns depended on the people’s opinion which had assumed to change after Fukushima accident.

However, there are very few empirical studies about attitude changes caused by Fukushima accident. This topic is so complex because not only individual factor but also context one contributes to explain the variance of attitude change.

Our studies will analyze the attitude change after Fukushima accidents. To cover both the individual and context variables, we adopt the multilevel modelling. This model will include the information from mass media, perceived risk, perceived benefit, knowledge and trust at the individual level and GDP per capita, dependence on the nuclear power energy, and environmental state at the country level.

 We expected that our analysis shows the structure of attitude change caused by accident change.


Foodborne outbreaks risk mitigation: from epidemiologic investigation to school education
Silvia Viegas, Paulo Fernandes, Roberto Brazão, Luísa Oliveira, Maria Antónia Calhau
Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr Ricardo Jorge, 1649-016, Lisboa, Portugal

Introduction

Prevention is an important strategy to reduce the burden of foodborne outbreaks (FBO). The identification of FBO risk factors, trough data analysis, can scientifically evidence the elaboration of School Educative Material (SEM) with promoter factors to the FBO prevention.

Objective

Development and implementation of food safety educational materials for schools

Material and Methods

Identification of FBO risk factors: FBO investigation data, obtained at National Institute of Health (INSA), from 2009 to 2013, were compiled and analysed, leading to the identification of FBO risk and contributing factors.

Identification of Good Food safety Practices: bad practices identified as risk to the occurrence of the FBO were characterized. Based on that, prevention good practices were compiled and published at INSA website in a Consumer Good Practices Guide.(CGPG)

Elaboration of School Educative Material: the CGPG scientific content was adapted to the different school curricula levels, through collaboration between health and education sectors.

Dissemination of School Educative Material: the SEM were made available on the website of INSA and disseminated at school meetings all over the country.

Results

Considering the 84 FBO that occurred in Portugal between 2009-2013 in which food products were analysed in INSA laboratories, the majority occurred in domestic kitchens (29%) and canteens (26%) and the major food vehicle was mixed meals (70,3%). Considering EFSA’s code system, FBO risk and contributive factors were Inadequate time/temperature Storage (25,8%), Cross-contamination (19,1%), Inadequate heat treatment (14,6%), Infected food handler (14,6%) and Unprocessed contaminated ingredient (4,5%).  To tackle these factors through food safety education targeted to consumer’s risk, we elaborated and disseminated on INSA site one CGPG and SEM adjusted for different educational stages: 2 powerpoints, 1 flyer and 1 learning assessment questionnaire of students after class. Currently, all material developed is being presented to several teachers of different country regions, to raise awareness of transmitting this knowledge in their classes.

Conclusion

Data from investigation of FBO can be used as guidance to develop policies and strategies, for all food chain stakeholders, to change consumer risk behaviour and improve FBO prevention analysis can be scientific evidence to guide the collaboration between all food chain stakeholders to develop informed policies and strategies to change consumer risk behaviours for FBO prevention. Education in safer food practices from early stages and along all levels of undergraduate school is crucial for the prevention of FBO.


PortFIR – An integrated approach for food risk analysis in Portugal
Paulo Fernandes, Silvia Viegas, Roberto Brazão, Luísa Oliveira, Maria Antónia Calhau
Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, 1649-016, Lisboa, Portugal

Introduction

Portugal plans and executes annual control plans to check the foodstuff safety, to ensure consumer’s health.  This control is assured by different institutions and therefore a large amount of data is produced. Additional data is provided by other stakeholders, such as universities, research centres, laboratories and food business operators.

To compile, and standardize this multi-source data, PortFIR (Portuguese Food Information Resource) was created, in order to provide national data to be used in risk assessment.

Objective:                              

Compilation and standardization of data making it available to risk assessment and other fields of work, through PortFIR.

Material and Methods                                

  1. Identification of food safety information providers: The food data providers were identified: laboratories, universities and other research centres, food business operators and national risk management authorities, which are the major data providers;
  2. Identification of all databases, languages and codification methods used: The national risk managers work under different languages and coding systems, according to their own needs;
  3. Development of specific, custom-made software to collect all the data: The data model is being created based on SSD (Standard Sample Description) and controlled vocabularies, developed by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) to annual report of official control plans, by Member States;
  4. Creation of a dedicated website (PortFIR): The PortFIR aims to be a platform that will host and analyse the data provided and make it available to users according to access levels;

Results

A data model was created to compile and standardize multi-source data and make it usable for risk assessment.

The PortFIR platform was created as a network for food data sharing, based on the principles of quality, transparency, reliability, produced in a standardised way validated, documented and with quality indexed data, compatible with other national and international databases. These databases include information regarding chemical and microbiological contamination, food composition and food consumption.

Conclusion

As outcome of PortFIR it will be possible to compile, maintain and share data to risk assessors and others stakeholders, concerning occurrence of food safety hazards and food consumption, essential to exposure assessment.

The system will provide information for other risk assessors, in a near future, according to their own access levels, to ensure data confidentiality, and can be also used as evidence to support the risk communication and management activities, improving the integration of all risk analysis actors, in order to assure a high level of food safety.


Does Experience Affect Judgement? Analyzing the impact of online experience on nuclear risk perception
Pyung Kim, Seoyong Kim
Ajou University, 16499, Suwon-si, Korea, Republic of (South)

  The risk perception studies based on the psychometric paradigm have provided the useful information for understanding people’s risk judgement related with nuclear energy. To be specific, the studies which focused on the impact of perceived risk, perceived benefit, stigma, trust, and knowledge were very helpful to understand the risk perception of public. However, they overlooked that a lot of risk judgements are done thorough Internet these days.

  Based on online survey data (N=1,000), the main purpose of this study is to figure out who have intention of spreading information against nuclear power energy. For this purpose, we will use nuclear oppostion as a dependent variable. In this regard, the nuclear opposition is divided into two concept; online and offline. The online opposition is the intention of participating in signature collecting or writing on the Internet against nuclear power. The offline opposition is the intention of sharing negative information with their acquaintances.

  On top of that, we use psychometric paradigm and personal experience as the independent variables. The psychometric paradigm means that perceived benefit, perceived risk, stigma, trust, and knowledge which is used in most of existing research. The personal experience is composed of offline and online experience. The offline experience is experience of meeting authorities or visiting to a nuclear power plant and the online experience refers to things like getting information or interaction on the Internet.

  This study helps us to understand the cognitive structure and the reactions of netizens. Also our study will well highlight how the personal experience plays a role in risk judging process and, by extension, we could compare with the difference of the effect of offline and online experience. The result of this study will contribute to designing the practical risk communication strategies of government.


Impact of a flash-flood risk communication strategy on the awareness of preparedness and response actions
Maria Amerigo 1, Juan A. Garcia 1, Jose M. Bodoque 2, Andres Diez-Herrero 3, Jorge Olcina 4, Raquel Perez-Lopez 5
1 Castilla-La Mancha University, Research Group on Environmental Psychology., 45071, Toledo, Spain
2 Castilla-La Mancha University, Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering,, 45071, Toledo, Spain
3 Geological Hazards Division, Geological Survey of Spain, 28003, Madrid, Spain
4 University of Alicante, Dept. of Regional Geographical Analysis, 03690, Alicante, Spain
5 Valladolid University, Dept. of Psychology, 42004, Soria, Spain

A suitable level of social awareness of Civil Protection Plans (CPP) is critical to minimize disasters and damages due to flash floods and, therefore, improving social vulnerability related to the impact of floods on households. This study describes and presents the results of the implementation of a Risk Communication Strategy (RCS) in a village located in Central Spain, which is prone to flash floods. The RCS included activities such as briefings, quiz-answers, contests of stories and flood images, and intergenerational workshops. The main objective was to test the impact of this RCS on the level of awareness regarding to some key variables included in the CPP designed by the regional government and referring to preparedness and response actions to flood events in the village (Bodoque et al., 2016). The fieldwork was developed in two periods (before and after the implementation of the RCS) in order to evaluate the changes in the level of awareness. The sample consisted of 201 adults, who were interviewed twice. T-test for paired samples analyses and repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed in order to compare the awareness in the sample before and after the implementation of the RCS. The results allowed us to conclude that the RCS has demonstrated its effectiveness by observing an awareness increase of the main concepts included in the CPP. Particularly, results indicate that: 1) People who did not know about RCS, did not increase their awareness about the actions included in the CPP; and 2) The increase towards the higher knowledge of the CPP was associated to the level of people implication in the RCS. As a conclusion, participants who showed more implication in the RCS, were more inclined to obtain correct answers in those actions included in the CPP that are carried out before, during and after a flash flood.


Can Facebook promote pro-environmental behaviors?
Tsunjen Shih
National Chengchi University, 116, Taipei, Taiwan

Facebook has served as an increasingly important platform for communicating risks in relation to climate change. On the one hand, a large number of people nowadays obtain information about public affairs on social media. On the other hand, both government agencies and non-governmental organizations have established Facebook pages to promote a low-carbon lifestyle. Therefore, the role of Facebook in shaping pro-environmental behaviors warrants examination.   

    Based on the fear appeal theories, exposure to risk information would trigger both negative emotions and cognitive appraisals (efficacy), which, in turn, may affect subsequent actions. However, the dynamics between emotions and efficacy was not clear yet. Furthermore, previous research in this field mainly focused on tradition media, with little attention paid to the newer forms of communication, such as Facebook. This study, therefore, aims to investigate the linear relationship between Facebook use (including both passive use and active use), perceived vulnerability, worry, efficacy, and pro-environmental behaviors. It is noteworthy that this study distinguishes between a more passive form of use, which refers to information exposure and “like” messages, and a more active form, which includes commenting on and forwarding messages.  

    Using an online survey of 1,000 respondents in Taiwan, this study found that passive Facebook use (ß = .14, p < .01), perceived vulnerability (ß = .11, p < .01), and self-efficacy (ß = .33, p < .01) were positively related to pro-environmental behaviors. In addition to direct effects, passive Facebook use also exerted indirect effects on pro-environmental behaviors through perceived vulnerability (ß = .03, p < .01) and self-efficacy (ß = .04, p < .01). The indirect path from passive Facebook use through perceived vulnerability and self-efficacy to pro-environmental behaviors was also statistically significant (ß = .04, p < .01). In contrast, active Facebook use did not affect pro-environmental behaviors either directly or indirectly. Although passive Facebook use exerted some impacts on worry, its indirect effect on pro-environmental behavior was not significant because worry did not serve as a valid predictor of behaviors. The finding partially supports the mediating notion of fear appeal in that the effect of negative emotions on behaviors was mediated by the coping appraisal process. 


Communicating uncertainty about probability: equivalent binomial count
Jason O'Rawe 1, Michael Balch 2, Scott Ferson 3
1 Applied Biomathematics 100 North Country Road, 11733, Setauket, New York, United States
2 Alexandria Validation Consulting, LLC 8565 Richmond Highway, #203, 22309, Alexandria, Virginia, United States
3 Institute for Risk and Uncertainty University of Liverpool, L69 7ZF, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Most strategies for the basic risk communication problem of expressing the probability of a well defined event presume the probability is precisely characterized as a real number. In practice, however, such probabilities can often only be estimated from data limited in abundance and precision. Likewise, risk analyses often yield imprecisely specified probabilities because of measurement error, small sample sizes, model uncertainty, and demographic uncertainty from estimating continuous variables from discrete data. Under the theory of confidence structures, the binomial probability of an event estimated from binary data with k successes out of n trials is associated with a particular structure that has the form of a p-box, i.e., bounds on a cumulative distribution function. When n is large, this structure approximates the beta distribution obtained by Bayesians under a binomial sampling model and the Jeffreys prior, and asymptotically it approximates the scalar frequentist estimate k/n. But when n is small, it is imprecise and cannot be approximated by any single distribution because of demographic uncertainty. These confidence structures make apparent the importance of the size of n to the reliability of the estimate. If n is large, the probability estimate is more reliable than if n is small. When a risk analysis yields a result in the form of a precise distribution or imprecise p-box for an event’s probability, we can approximate the result with a confidence structure corresponding to a binomial probability estimated for some values of k and n. Thus we can characterize the event probability from the risk analysis with a terse, natural-language expression of the form “k out of n”, where k and n are nonnegative integers and 0≤kn. We call this the equivalent binomial count, and argue that it condenses both the probability and uncertainty about that probability into a form that psychometry suggests will be intelligible to humans. Gigerenzer calls such integer pairs “natural frequencies” because humans appear to natively understand their implications, including what the size of n says about the reliability of the probability estimate.  We describe preliminary data collected with Amazon Mechanical Turk that appear to show that humans correctly understand these expressions.


Diagnostic medical testing: one size does not fit all
Scott Ferson
Institute for Risk and Uncertainty University of Liverpool, L69 7ZF, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Diagnostic testing is used for several different purposes in medicine, including counselling patients, public heath surveys, blood screening, pharmacology, etc. Diagnostic algorithms (programmed test sequences) are usually developed by panels of experts without any formal quantitative analysis. This process is slow and often yields suboptimal results that are not adapted for very different diagnostic purposes and do not account for reliabilities of the various underlying tests. Customizing a diagnostic algorithm requires searching over testing topologies to find an algorithm that comes as close as possible to meeting given constraints (e.g., limiting average cost per patient) that optimizes given criteria (e.g., maximizing prediction reliability). In order to guarantee the constraints have been met, the inherent uncertainties in diagnostic testing parameters (i.e., sensitivity and specificity based on limited empirical sampling) can be propagated through calculations using robust Bayes methods. This approach can also handle potential correlations and dependencies among tests and across test performance statistics. The resulting test topology can maximize the selected criterion while meeting the constraints, with generally different answers for different medical purposes. Using such an approach to design medical test algorithms will improve public health by allowing a more efficient allocation of public health resources from quantitatively optimized testing strategies and by allowing doctors and patients to make better health decisions because of full knowledge of the concomitant uncertainties in the diagnostic process. For-purpose designs of diagnostic algorithms are better than other algorithms because they can be fashioned to meet a priori specifications about surety, cost, time, invasiveness, etc., or to optimize performance on such a factor.  Traditional designs are inflexible and often ad hoc, so they are rarely optimal and may not satisfy performance goals. The proposed approach, implemented in appropriate software, can also produce algorithms designed in real-time, making them more responsive than traditional algorithms designed by committee. The statistical performance of the algorithms can be assessed formally using reliable robust Bayesian methods that simultaneously have guaranteed coverage probabilities under a frequentist interpretation of probability. Numerical examples will be given to illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach.


Pilotproject aimed at “Helping children develop the thinking tools to deal with risk and decisionmaking under conditions of uncertainty”.
Anne Michiels van Kessenich
gemeente Haarlem, 2318MA, leiden, Netherlands

The risk- approach is gaining prominence as a mechanism to address societal questions. Although the merits of the concept are well understood in academic circles, popular readings of the term still see risks as problems, to be avoided at (almost) all cost. This hinders the development of the full problem solving capacity of the risk-concept in decision making settings.

We address this problem by giving children, whom we postulate have not been framed to view risk as a purely negative thing, but who are increasingly exposed to negatively framed information about risks in the media, the thinking tools to help them gain an understanding of the nature and benefits of the risk-concept.

We teach them how they can optimalise their own decisionmaking using the concept of risk (a collection of possible outcomes) as a way to make their own risk-risk trade-offs. To this end we offer them elementary information about probability and uncertainty, and emphasise that conditions of uncertainty are not necessarily ‘’bad‘’ but rather indications of multiple possible outcomes in which unwanted outcomes can be reduced but at a cost.

A special element of our lessons centres on the physical sensations children experience whenever they encounter something scary. We hypothesise that bodily sensations are influential in steering the childrens’ decisions in risky decisions, and are in fact dominant over cognitive imput. We want therefore to make them aware of the sinking feeling in their stomachs whenever they encounter abstract information because this sinking feeling is then actually misapplied.

We have so far chosen to use a specific type of risk: accidents involving hazardous substances, because the risks of this type are usually quite small and therefore offer a good playground for uninitiated minds.

Resting on the sound intellectual pillars developed by scholars like Daniel Kahneman, Baruch Fischhoff, Ortwin Renn and Ragnar Löfstedt (who are on our scientific advisory board), we have developed an inductive pilot to test different games and interventions for their effectiveness. The pilots have so far yielded positive qualitative results.

We would like to discuss the results of our pilot and explore possibilities for using this kind of playful interaction with children and young adults to help them gain an understanding of valuable ways of organising complex information in a society that is paradoxically getting both ever more risk-driven as risk-averse. 


Historical exposure to heavy metals in air
Stina Alriksson, Elin Voxberg, Monika Filipsson, Anna Augustsson
Linnaeus University, 391 82, Kalmar, Sweden

Approximately 80-90 glassworks have been located in southeast Sweden since the 1600s. When glass was manufactured raw materials such as sand, soda, lime, potash and red lead were used in different proportions depending on the type of glass to be produced. A number of heavy metals were used to colour the glass; cadmium, molybdenum, chromium and even uranium.

Until the 1970s, environmental considerations were limited and therefore the glasswork areas are heavily polluted. For example, concentrations of Pb in soil have been found at levels about 1300 times the Swedish EPA generic guidelines. There are currently a number of studies examining how people who live or lived near the contaminated glassworks are affected by emissions and pollution; through drinking water, consumption of home-grown vegetables, wild-picked mushrooms and berries as well as self-caught fish and shellfish. However, beside the deposition of waste materials on the glassworks properties, extensive Pb emissions to air occurred in the past and a significant fraction (about 10% in 1977/1978) of the total Swedish Pb emissions to air occurred from the glass factories in the Swedish glassworks region. Hence, the historical exposure may have been largely associated with the inhalation of flue gas particles. In this context, exposure through inhalation of air-born particles is an area that is difficult to assess because there are no measurements of the air emission that extends further back than the 1980s. This study uses a new methodological approach to assess metal exposure through this exposure route for the time period 1900-2016 at 10different glassworks sites.

In a first step, archival studies (Swedish National Archives) revealed historical glassworks raw material purchases and production levels. These data were used to estimate the historical emissions based on the measured emissions available from the 1990s - before the glassworks installed filters.

In a second step, wind direction data from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute was combined with deposition studies (mosses), giving the local distribution of air borne pollutants around each facility.

In the third step, time series were created where exposure to air borne heavy metals for the inhabitants of each glasswork site was estimated.

For the 10 glassworks in the study, total and continuous air emissions have been estimated over time and an estimate has been made of the exposure to heavy metals through inhalation of air-borne flue gas particles (lead, chromium and arsenic) at the ten glassworks facilities.


The Impact of Beliefs, Motives and Worldviews on Social Acceptance of Renewable Energy Technologies
Robert Sposato, Nina Hampl
Alpen-Adria Universität Klagenfurt, 9500, Klagenfurt, Austria

The increasing spotlight on renewable energy technologies (RET) over the past decades has brought a fickle issue regarding the actual deployment of such technologies to the foreground: social acceptance of RET. Existing research has investigated social-psychological characteristics as predictors but has largely ignored the risk perception literature. As a first effort to integrate existing risk perception scholarship the study presented here, is aimed at advancing our understanding of psychographic correlates of acceptance, with a particular focus on the cultural worldviews individuals subscribe to as predictors of acceptance. In this paper, we examine social acceptance of RET at the local scale and investigate the respective predictive power of various constructs. We study a nationally representative sample of 1000 respondents with a mean age of 45 years (SD = 14.0) and 49 % women. The following variables are examined: Adherence to individualistic/hierarchical and communitarian/egalitarian worldviews, participants’ belief in RET, individuals’ motives to adopt renewables in general, socio-demographic variables and as a dependent compound variable acceptance of two forms of RET. The data are analysed by multiple linear regression, with the final regression model accounting for 29% of total variance. RET belief (b = .38, p = .00) yields the highest standardized regression weight followed by RE motives (b = .23, p = .00) RET scepticism (b = -.10, p = .00), Age (b = -.08, p = .01), Communitarianism/Egalitarianism (b = .07, p = .04) and gender (b = -.06, p = .03). The discussion section demonstrates that attitudinal and more abstract psychological constructs make a valuable contribution in predicting individuals’ acceptance of RET developments. We further elaborate on the inconclusive findings regarding the predictive value of cultural worldviews and discuss the ambiguous results regarding the measurement scales' reliability and factor solutions, which suggest that the here applied cultural worldview scales do not adequately suit an Austrian cultural context. Leading on from these findings, suggestions for communication and engagement strategies during the critical stages of a RET project are presented.


COMPETENCE FOR THE UNFORESEEN The importance of human, social and organizational factors
Marius Herberg 1, Glenn-Egil Torgersen 2, Torbørn Rundmo 3
1 Norwegian Defence University College, MILPED, Akershus fortress, Oslo Mil/Akershus 0015 Oslo, 0015, Oslo, Norway
2 Norwegian Defence University College, MILPED, Akershus fortress, Oslo Mil/Akershus 0015 Oslo, 0015, Oslo, Norway
3 Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, NO-7491, Trondheim, Norway

This study examines differences in how various groups and individuals considers preparedness for unforeseen events, based on their role and function within the organization. The objective is twofold. Firstly, to analyse the association between social support, self-efficacy, and perceived competence in demanding situations on the one hand. On the other hand, assessment of efficiency in social human interactions in organizations and overall assessment of satisfaction with preparedness for the unforeseen. The second aim is to examine differences in these factors due to personal practical experience with such events. 

A self-completed survey was carried out, with a total of 800 participants responding to the questionnaire. They were all male and female employees of different competence levels and units in the Norwegian Armed Forces, including commissioned and non-commissioned officers, officer cadets, as well as conscript soldiers. The response rate was 80 percent. The result showed that there were significate differences in the response evaluation of social support from colleagues and their own leaders, in self-efficacy, and competence in demanding situations due to education, gender and organizational experience. Furthermore, these factors were found to predict assessment of social human interactions and preparedness for the unforeseen.     

The security policy picture suggests that the future is characterized by great uncertainty, with complex challenges, in which development can follow several paths. Many countries and organizations have therefore an ambition to develop flexible establishments that are able to fill multiple roles and solving a wide range of tasks. However, these organizations is largely grounded on presumed scenarios and known quantities. Thus, unforeseen events represents a particular challenge, involving several levels of competence. How the individual human handles the unforeseen, will on the one hand, depend on individual factors. On the other hand, the dynamic between social and organizational factors affects the individual. At the same time, there`s little knowledge of these relationships, and how an organization methodically can identify relevant factors. Therefore, these results should be particularly relevant for those involved in acquiring, mobilizing and developing competence in educational-, crisis- and military organizations.


Consumption of home-produced foods in south eastern Sweden – new data for use in exposure assessments
Monika Filipsson, Alexandra Karlsson, Stina Alriksson, Anna Augustsson
Linnaeus University, 391 82, Kalmar, Sweden

Home-produced foods may be affected by local contaminations in soil and water. Information about consumption of home-produced foods is essential in many exposure assessments. There is a lack of information about quantities consumed, as well as proportion of food that are home-produced. The lack of information force decision makes to make decisions with a weak scientific basis.

In this study, a self-reported questionnaire was used, including the following food items; home-grown vegetables, fruit and berries as well as self-picked berries and mushrooms, self-caught fish, game as well as egg and dairy products. The aim of the study was to collect self-reported data of how often and how much are the different home-produced food items are consumed and how much of the total consumption are home-produced respective bought in stores.

The study area is in south eastern Sweden since there are a large number of contaminated glass works sites in this area and our previous studies show that elevated metal concentrations can be found in many garden soils. The questionnaire was sent out to 3000 randomly selected individuals in the municipalities with a population of less than 20.000 inhabitants in Kronoberg, Kalmar and Jönköping counties in south-eastern Sweden. It was also distributed to 3000 individuals near lakes and streams close to glass works. In total, 17% answered the questionnaire, even though the answering frequency varied depending on question.

This presentation focuses on home-produced vegetables, fruit and berries and mushrooms. The home-produced vegetable that was eaten in largest quantities was potatoes, fruit was apple and the most picked wild berries were blueberry and lingonberry. Besides estimating consumed quantities, the respondents were also asked to estimate the proportion of their total consumption of different food items that was home-produced, in opposite to the rest that was bought in a food store. Often in exposure assessments a default value of 10% is assumed. In this study, the average fraction of home-produced potatoes, other root vegetables, leafy vegetables and other vegetables were 32% (median = 20%), 24% (median = 10%), 20% (median = 10%) respective 20% (median = 10%). The average fraction of home-produced fruit, berries and mushrooms were 22% (median=10%), 52% (median=50%) respective 59% (median 70%).

The data can be used in quantitative exposure assessment. The large number of respondents makes it possible to characterize variability in consumption of home-produced food items which makes use in probabilistic risk assessment possible.


Variability in frequency and quantity of used personal health care products by young people for use in quantitative exposure assessment
Sandra Hultgren, Monika Filipsson
Linnaeus University, 391 82, Kalmar, Sweden

Some of the chemical ingredients in PCPs (personal care products) could harm the environment and human health. The frequency of use and the amount of product used are important knowledge to perform exposure assessments. Some of the chemicals in PCPs are suspected to act as hormone disruptors and young people are therefor of special concern. The aim of this study was to assess the use of PCPs, both frequency and quantity, with a focus on young people in Sweden.

In total 43 persons, 23 female and 20 male in an age range of 10 to 59 years, filled out a questionnaire including questions about user frequency. Of the participants, 32 agreed to weight their PCPs with an interval of 4 weeks in order to assess the total amount used per day.

The products with the highest percent of daily use were liquid hand soap, facial cream, perfume and lip balm. Liquid hand soap was used daily by 90% of male users and 91,3% of female users.

Compared to men, the female users had a higher usage percent for all products except two; shower gel and sun cream. The three products that were used in highest quantity during the test period was body wash (3,29 g/day), liquid hand soap (5,67 g/day) and body lotion (2,02 g/day). Females tend to have a greater percent of daily use regarding body lotion, creams, facial wash, makeup and perfume compared to males. Men have a higher percent of daily usage of hairstyling products where 20% of the male users have a daily use while female daily users are 13%. 

The results show that all makeup products are used by more than 60% of the female responders and 95,7% of the female respondents uses mascara. Mascara has the highest percent of daily use by females while eyeshadow is used by highest percent of female users in 1-3 times/week.  Eyeshadow was used in a greater amount in grams (0,09 g/day) than mascara (0,07 g/day) even though eyeshadow was used less frequency.

Female users tend to use more products than male users and could therefore be of greater interest regarding user habits and amount of products used in risk assessments. The information is also useful to assess the flow of elements in urban wastewater.


Collaborative value network around Mental Modeling Technology™ Platform for integrated risk management and risk communication
Gordon Butte, Dyna Vink
Decision Partners: Cognitive Science Systems LP, 15217, Pittsburgh, United States

The Mental Modeling Technology™ (MMT) Platform is a unique, decision science informed and evidence-based technology to support strategic decision making. Its debut in 2016, accompanied by an international patent, cumulates a quarter century plus saga of one company whose business was translating the basic research in the behavioral sciences – including that of cognitive scientists Kahneman and Tversky and that of Kahneman as the “father” of behavioral economics – into practical methods and tools, and “interventions” – that could be used in organizations of all kinds to address complex issues rooted in challenges of understanding and addressing human judgment, decision making and behavior.

The creation of the MMT™ Platform Collaborative Value Network (CVN) is a related story about an entirely new and social network science-based business model that obsoletes by disrupting the old and current models of consulting in a world without borders, namely the Internet. The CVN bridges people doing basic research in the behavioral sciences and those applying behavioral insights to create and support sustainable solutions in processes and systems of all kinds, wherever people are key to performance improvement.

This development is good news for every leader in every organization everywhere whose success turns on how effectively they identify, mitigate and manage risks…..they can now get the latest evidence-based advances in the behavioral sciences, tuned to risk management challenges, from a network of scientists and management professionals working together online…and no longer have to rely on consulting firms for their “brand” of the science. Using the MMT™ Platform, targeted and highly effective risk communications can be crafted to address the specific needs and interest of different groups to enhance the likelihood of accomplishing desired behavior change.  


Augmenting Risk Management Processes with Model-Based Identification of Critical Characteristics
Carmen Elizabeth Castaño Reyes 1, 2, Poornima Belavadi 2, Robert Schmitt 1, 2
1 Fraunhofer IPT, 52074, Aachen, Germany
2 RWTH Aachen University, 52056, Aachen, Germany

Comparing the strengths and weaknesses of standard risk management techniques, we found that all of them fall short of mastering the simultaneity of complexity and comprehensiveness (Zentis and Schmitt, 2013; Redmill, 2002). In MedTech this is a deteriorating issue, as medical devices become more complex and are increasingly interwoven in device networks, but trading off comprehensiveness is not an option, given that missing out in risk identification corresponds with potential threats to people's life and health. Having further analyzed the flaws actuating the conflict like incompatabilities of professional environments, absent process formalization or uncertainty of coverage (Schmitt and Zentis, 2011), it shows that they are abetted by the document-based approach for which all techniques were designed. Yet, these techniques excel at incorporating the human qualities an expert panel provides and which often cannot be merged into a system model to their full extent.

This poster will illustrate our research on comprehensive model-based risk management, showing our approach to combine computational power and accuracy with human expertise and detailedness. We consider identifying the critical characteristics in every stage of the product life cycle the key step in this effort. Therefore, a vast number of interactions between the product life cycle's elements needs to be searched and compared for similarities with elements with known critical characteristics stemming e.g. from legacy product life cycles or rules like standards or regulations. Thus, the computerized step will deliver comprehensive results, which only depend on data quality and not on human processing. We will explain how we intend to realize this with our tools using UML/SysML, customized databases and open standards for model-based system engineering. Herein, we will also explicate our choice of modeling IDE/platform and the semantic settings developed for the data types.

Carmen Castaño, M.Sc., is a Production Systems Engineer, lecturer at the Technological University of Panama (UTP), currently doing her doctorate in Mechanical Engineering at RWTH Aachen University, NRW, Germany. She leads the Model-Based Risk Management research team within the IT-based Quality Management group at Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology in Aachen.


The effect of PM2.5 regulatory thresholds on all-cause mortality among active commuters. A case study from London and Beijing.
George Yiallouros, Panayiotis Kouis, Stefania Papatheodorou
Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, 3041, Limassol, Cyprus

Background

Active commuting (cycling, walking) has been linked with reduced all-cause mortality. However, active commuting in urban environments could increase intake of fine particles (PM2.5) and result in negative health effects. We aimed to evaluate the change in all-cause mortality among active commuters in London and Beijing under different commuting scenarios. Baseline scenario assumes commuters cycle to work daily while the remaining scenarios assume commuters cycle to work only when PM2.5 levels are below specific thresholds (<35 μg/m3, <50 μg/m3, <75 μg/m3).  

Methods

Daily cycling time of active commuters was available from census data. City specific daily PM2.5 profiles during weekday peak hours were created for 2010-2012. Annual all-cause mortality relative risks were calculated based on published dose-response functions (DRF) (Tainio et al. Preventive Medicine 2016; 87: 233-236) and results are presented in annual averted deaths. Sensitivity analysis for the shape of the DRF and Monte Carlo simulations were performed in ANALYTICA.

Results  

Mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 19 μg/m3 (min: 7 μg/m3, max: 62 μg/m3) in London and 97 μg/m3 (min: 17 μg/m3, max: 346 μg/m3) in Beijing. PM2.5 thresholds resulted in small reductions (for <35 μg/m3) or no change (for <50 μg/m3 and <75 μg/m3) in averted deaths for London but resulted in a high increase in averted deaths for all thresholds in Beijing (Table 1). Results for Beijing were sensitive to the shape of the DRF. 

Conclusion

In cities with high air pollution, all-cause mortality among active commuters is expected to be reduced when cycling to work is only performed in days with low PM2.5 levels.

Table 1: Averted deaths per year in London and Beijing

Averted deaths per year (mean, SD)
Cycling to work activity

Cycling daily

Cycling when    PM2.5 <35 μg/m3 Cycling when   PM2.5 <50 μg/m3

Cycling when         PM2.5 <75 μg/m3

London 223 (30) 218 (31) 223 (30) 223 (30)
Beijing 521 (131) 614 (124) 706 (140)  867 (166)

 

Monday, June 19th - - 20:00 - 22:30
- Social programme III (extra)
Tuesday, June 20th - Conference hall - 08:30 - 09:00
- Registration
Tuesday, June 20th - Auditorium #2 - 09:00 - 09:10
- SRA-E Awards announcement
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Seda Kundak, President-Elect - Society for Risk Analysis-Europe
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Tuesday, June 20th - Auditorium #2 - 09:10 - 09:40
- Dr Kuttschreuter: Social media & serious gaming in a risky world
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Global societal development is not only characterised by new challenges and new threats, but also by new technologies and new instruments that might be helpful in addressing them. The mitigation of new risks is advanced by informing and advising the general public on these risks and on effective strategies to adequately cope with them. Social media and serious games have recently grown into important information channels, which makes them very relevant to risk analysis.

With the introduction of the Web 2.0 a decade ago, the risk communication landscape changed dramatically. Social networking sites emerged and organisations became able to attach platforms to their websites inviting user comments and contributions. This enabled risk communicators to better reach out to specific target groups, interact with platform users and to facilitate interactions between their users. The last decade also witnessed a significant rise in serious gaming. The introduction of 3D-environments significantly improved video games for entertainment purpose. This also boosted the popularity of serious gaming.

This talk will discuss the significance of social media and serious gaming to risk analysis. Focus will be on the potential of social media and serious gaming to help risk communicators understand how people respond to risk and risk information. What information can we find out? Does the information on social media affect individual attitudes? Does this information spread, and if so, what do we know about this process? A second focus relates to the use of social media and serious gaming in informing and advising the general public. Does it make sense, and is it effective, to use social media as a channel to provide risk information? What do the features of social media mean for current risk communication models? What do we know on the effectiveness of risk-related serious games in enhancing informed decision making?

The answers to these and similar questions will demonstrate the potentials of social media and serious gaming in facilitating informed risk decision making and their contribution to resilience and adaptation in a risky world.
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Tuesday, June 20th - Auditorium #2 - 09:40 - 10:10
- Prof. Gonçalves: Risk-based approach & personal data protection
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The European Union approved the first broad reform of its personal data protection legislation in May 2016, to enter into force in 2018. Remarkably, with this reform a risk-based approach is being introduced as the main legal enforcement model, while data protection authorities see their regulatory role significantly weakened. The risk-based approach is to be implemented by the data controllers (i.e. the operators) via data protection impact assessments (evoking the established environmental impact assessment procedure) and notification of breaches. Hence the scope of both the concept of risk and risk regulation spread beyond conventional domains, namely the environment, public health or safety, i.e. physical risks, to encompass intangible values, presumably harder to assess. Strikingly, the reform has been accompanied by a confident discourse by EU institutions, and their avowed belief in the reform’s ability to safeguard the fundamental right to data protection in the face of evolving data processing techniques specifically, big data, the Internet of Things, and related algorithmic decision-making. However, one may wonder whether there isn’t cause for concern in view of the way risk-based approach has been designed in the data protection legislation. In this presentation, the data protection reform’s underlying rationality is analysed. Comparison with the risk regulatory experience in environmental law in particular is drawn upon to assist us in pondering the limitations as well as the opportunities of the novel risk-based approach.
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Tuesday, June 20th - Auditorium #2 - 10:10 - 10:30
- Keynotes 2-3 Q&A
Tuesday, June 20th - Auditorium #2 - 11:00 - 12:30
Symposium - Psychological Aspects of Risk Perception & Risk Behavior
Psychological Aspects of Risk Perception and Risk Behavior in Different Contexts
Bernhard Streicher
UMIT - University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060, Hall in Tyrol, Austria

Symposium Abstract

People have the amazing ability to make rapid decisions and to act quickly in rather complex situations. A lot of this ability stems from experience and expertise with similar situations. However, people are regularly confronted with yet similar, but regarding important factors different, new, or unfamiliar risky situations. People use different strategies in order to judge the risks of this kind of situation: Sometimes they still rely on their experience and expertise; other time they use they current bodily state (e.g., activity, affect) as a rule of thumb; or they use the behavior of others as a source for decision making (e.g., social norm, social proof). On the one side, these strategies are fast and easy to use. On the other side, the underlying process is often subconscious and the rational of the strategy can be inappropriate for the problem to be solved. Therefore, people, when judging the risks of less familiar situations, are prone to a variety of psychological mechanisms influencing and biasing human perception and behavior. Accordingly, the symposium focuses on different psychological aspects regarding risk estimation and risk behavior in different contexts. It aims to explore a variety of mechanism and to discuss the potential value for practical implications.


The influence of being active and time of day on intended risky behavior in winter sports.
Bernhard Streicher
UMIT - University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060, Hall in Tyrol, Austria

In order to be able to act in everyday life people constantly have to make quick decisions. The quality of these decisions is correlated with the expertise and experience people can rely on in a specific situation. However, people constantly have to make decisions and act in (risky) situation in which they can’t rely on intensive expertise. In this kind of situations people use different strategies to come to reasonable decisions. One well researched strategy is the so-called affect heuristic: The current affective state is taken as a proxy for the riskiness of a situation and the behavior is adjusted accordingly. If the affect does not reflect the riskiness of the situation, this strategy can lead to biased decision making. However, there might be many others, less researched factors, influencing decision making in risky situations. In the current research we explored the influence of being bodily active (active vs. non-active) and time of day (morning vs. noon vs. afternoon) on intended risk taking. In a between-subjects questionnaire study a sample of winter sportswomen /-men (N = 350) were approached in a major ski resort. Among others, results showed a decrease in intended risk-taking during the course of the day. Additionally, while being active (i.e. skiing or snowboarding) participants reported to behave more risk taking compared to being non-active (i.e. being at the parking lot, or during lunch break). Furthermore, there was some indication that affective states moderate intentions of risk taking: Higher levels of positive affect were associated with more intended risk-taking, while higher levels of negative affect were associated with less risk taking. Overall, results gave some evidence that risk taking, at least in outdoor sport, is influenced by the bodily state of being active and time of day. Further research should explore, whether these are significant factors on risk perception and behavior in different contexts as well.


Correcting Base-Rate Neglect in Interest-Rate Forecasts: Straight from Kahneman’s Book into Banking Practice
Johannes Voit
Deutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband, 10117, Berlin, Germany

Base-rate neglect is one of the classical cognitive biases affecting expert estimates. We have identified base-rate neglect as an important bias in the interest-rate forecasts of a small regional bank. Experts there produce forecasts for the returns of German government bonds with maturities of 3 months and 2, 5, and 10 years, respectively, for up to five years into the future. Their main input are economic studies of major banks. Almost all of the forecasts compare badly with the ex-post realizations of the bond returns.

An interview-based investigation of the forecast process revealed that none of the experts included historic time series into the forecast. These were readily available in the bank, and showed clear trends opposite in direction to the direction of the forecasts. Subsequently, a minimally invasive correction scheme was set up which was mainly based on visualization, accounting for the limited statistical capacities of the bank: (i) perform the forecast as usual, (ii) receive information on trends derived from time series, (iii) estimate a (credibility) weight factor for one’s own forecast, and (iv) generate a weighted average of (i) and (ii), thus circumventing the necessity to use Bayesian statistics.

To present the methodology as simply as possible, a picture book was conceived. For facilitating the actual data treatment [step (iv)], the bank’s experts were handed over a painting book whose final drawings later were re-digitized.


Effects of anchoring on market forecasts in banking practice – How to avoid biased expert judgements
Elisabeth Schneider 1, Bernhard Streicher 2, Eva Lermer 1, Lena Erne 1
1 LMU Munich, 80802, Munich, Germany
2 UMIT, 6060, Hall, Tyrol, Austria

Forecasting market potential is a crucial for a company’s strategic focus. Such forecasting processes often involve several sources of information which a group of experts has to judge and from which they have to derive appropriate estimations. However, such estimations can be biased in that irrelevant situational factors (subconsciously) affect expert’s judgments. One of the most prominent and robust biasing effect in psychological decision making and risk research is that of anchoring: people adjust an estimation to an (irrelevant) number, i.e., anchor. With respect to market forecasts in banking, this effect is of special relevance, since all facts and key information are depicted in numbers. The present study was based on forecast processes in a regional bank and transferred to a laboratory setting with a student population (N = 184). It examined the influence of two sequential anchors on performance judgments and actual performance. In addition, the source of information (i.e., an expert judgment vs. a computer model forecast) was varied and trustworthiness and credibility were measured. Results indicate that anchoring occurred after the first anchor. If anchors provided congruent information (high/high or low/low), judgements remained stable. However, if anchors provided incongruent information (high/low or low/high), anchoring effects diminished. Furthermore, no effects of source of information and no effects on actual performance were found. Practical implications can be drawn for the design of estimation processes in particular and risk management in general.


Smartphone use as an indicator for risk-taking
Eva Lermer 1, Martina Raue 2, Dieter Frey 1
1 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80802, Munich, Germany
2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 02139, Cambridge MA, United States

Smartphones are becoming increasingly indispensable in our daily lives. In 2016, about 76% of the German population and more than 90% of 18 to 49 year-old Germans were smartphone owners (Statista, 2017). On average, people spend over two hours a day using social media sites, texting, sending e-mails, making phone calls or playing games - sometimes even while driving a car or engaging in other activities that require attention. In the context of driving, mobile phone distraction increases the risk of accidents, and studies have shown that excessive mobile phone use correlates positively with risk behavior in other areas such as smoking (Koivusilta et al., 2003). The present study aimed at exploring the association between frequency of smartphone use and risk-taking attitude. We conducted an online study (N = 254) and measured participants’ smartphone addiction (frequency and need) and their domain-specific risk-taking attitude. Results replicated previous findings in that, overall, men showed higher risk-taking scores than women. Regarding smartphone use, results across all participants showed that values on the smartphone addiction scale correlate positively with risk-taking in the domains ethical, gambling, and health but negatively in the social domain. Surprisingly, a closer look at mobile phone type revealed that iPhone as opposed to Android users differ significantly on the smartphone addiction scale and in their risk-taking. Furthermore, results showed a significant interaction between gender and mobile phone type for smartphone addiction. Findings of the present study and follow-up questions will be discussed.


The influence of relational models on punishment behaviour in economic decision making
Astrid Harris, Elisabeth Schneider, Katharina Kugler, Felix C. Brodbeck
Ludwig Maximilians University Munich Department of economic and organisational psychology, 80802, Munich, Germany

When making economic decisions, uncertainties and risks often have to be considered. Risk can arise from unknown factors that might happen with a certain probability (i.e., probabilistic risk) or from uncertainty about other people’s reactions (i.e., relational risk). In social situations, people draw on social norms to guide their behaviour and anticipate the behaviour of others (Fehr & Schmidt, 2006). Financial markets are a good example. For instance, if a sufficient number of people sell their stocks, then others imitate this behaviour and stock prices may collapse in a cascade effect. However, norms are not universally stable but are influenced by various situational and relational aspects. The relational models theory (Fiske, 1992) suggests that people use four fundamental relational models and related moral motives for relationship regulation: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching and market pricing. These models influence social interaction, evaluation and affect and are used to construct mental schemata of relationships. In social interactions, situational, cultural and relational factors make one of the models salient. The model then influences people’s evaluation of the situation, their judgement and norms, and guides their behaviour. The current research addresses two models, communal sharing and market pricing, and examines their influence on punishment behaviour in risky decision making.  In communal sharing, people perceive themselves as members of a group in which resources are shared and members are friendly towards each other. The market pricing frame is based on cost-benefit-ratios and calculations of efficiency and expected utility. In this study, 160 participants, of which 80 fulfilled the role of dictator and 80 fulfilled the role of receiver, played a one-shot dictator game. The receivers were given a post-game punishment option. Framing occurred for either the communal sharing or the market pricing model to examine whether the salient relational model influences participants’ expectations regarding money distribution, and their punishment behaviour. Results indicate that relational models affect both money distribution and punishment behaviour. Participants in the market pricing condition invested more points to punish other players, which violates utility maximization. The study suggests that social norms and moral motives have to be considered when predicting individuals’ decision making in social situations that contain relational risks. In particular, the culture of organisations might frame certain relational models, which in turn influence employees’ interactions and decision making.

Tuesday, June 20th - Auditorium #3 - 11:00 - 12:30
Symposium - Risk communication by Government Agencies
Risk communication by Government Agencies: Are there similarities as well as differences?
Ragnar Lofstedt
Kings College London, WC2R 2LS, London, United Kingdom

There have long been calls for uniform risk communication strategies be it based in Government, industry or academia.  Over the years there have been a multiple number of risk communication manuals arguing that the first principle has to be consistency.  It is argued that uniform and consistent messaging reduces confusion and leads to better public understanding of risk.  The question remains if this is indeed the case.  Do government agencies, for example, put forward broadly similar risk communication messages or does it vary between agencies depending on what the agencies are regulating?  This symposium addresses this issue.


Agency risk communication: The Swedish case of radon.
Ragnar Lofstedt
King's College London, WC2R 2LS, London, United Kingdom

Sweden has a substantial radon problem.  There are three primary sources of radon including leaching from the ground/bedrock, via the water from drilled wells and finally from building materials.  The WHO recommended radon standard is set at 100 Bequerels per cubic meter (Bqm3), yet the Swedish Housing Agency has put forward a guidance for double that amount at 200 Bqm3.  Some houses have much higher levels than that—one house was measured having 28,000 BQ3.  Radon is estimated to cause 450 cases of lung cancer per year.  As the Swedish Housing Agency has concluded that it will be impossible for Sweden to meet the WHO guidelines, it has instigated a major risk communication programme on the topic, to help inform Swedes how to both measure and reduce radon levels in homes.  This paper evaluates the Housing Agency’s risk communication programme on radon.


  How do municipalities solve and apprehend contradictions between the communication of risks to civil society and the exposure of those.
Madeleine Prutzer, Åsa Boholm, Max Boholm
University of Gothenburg, School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg Research Institute, 40530, Göteborg, Sweden

In Sweden the municipalities have to develop a risk and vulnerability report every 4th year which should be sent to the County Administrative Board and on top of that an additional yearly supplement according to the law (SFS 2006: 544). The report has to follow instructions made by Swedish Civil Contingency Agency (MSB). In Sweden one of the fundamental principal is public access to official records to ensure the confidence for the system by taking part of public documents to assure a transparent administration and decision system.  That implies that openness is the point of departure for all incoming and produced documents within the authority and the secrecy is the exception. The exception is used in cases for documents obviously addressed to the official as a private person or material classified as especially sensible.  When it comes to how to handle risk and vulnerability reports it can be done in different ways at different municipalities while the fundamental principle of municipal autonomy makes the county councils and municipalities enjoy a high degree of independence and have the right to make their own decisions. As this is the departure and essential base for handling information this presentation will focus on how emergency coordinator or officials working with emergency coordination 40 municipalities solve the contradiction of communicating risks to the civil society and while doing that at the same time expose the risks in the society. The presentation will also capture the different views and understandings of the contradiction in the global context of increasing social unrest.


Remediating contaminated places: Closing the gap between desired outcome and current practice in risk communication
Annelie Sjölander-Lindqvist
University of Gothenburg, 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden

In creating a society that has solved the most significant environmental problems for following generations, hazards to human and environmental health must be minimized. Remediating contaminated areas and sites is part of the Swedish environmental quality objective for a ‘Toxin-free Environment’. In reaching the goal, contaminated soil must undergo post treatment and the amount of substances that does not belong in the environment reduced to safeguard human and non-human health. By the end of 2015, over 2,900 areas had been partially or completely remediated. Early industrial sites are the primary source for toxic substances in soil and water. While industries such as wood impregnation, paper and pulp mills, and glass works in the past led to economic development, today the remains impact on ecological and human health but may still be interpreted as important to local economy and cultural heritage.

Besides reducing and preventing chemical impact on water, sediment and soil, the remediation projects does also need to prevent residential uncertainty. Central to the remediation efforts is therefore risk communication, which needs to be designed in such a way that potentially damaging public response to the remediation process can be avoided. This paper explores risk communication approaches taking place before, during and after the remediation of contaminated sites. Through interviews with planners and managers involved in two different remediation projects, the aims of this study is to: (1) identify organizational, policy and communicative factors influencing risk communication in post treatment of contaminated sites, and (2) identify and analyze actors’ way of conceptualizing and construing the role of knowledge and legitimacy in risk communication.  These steps will contribute to closing the gap between desired outcome and current practice. Understanding how different actors understand and motivate their selection, formulation and implementation of communication strategies, sheds light on the contextual and temporal dimensions of risk communication and how these challenge new directions in risk communication practice.


Transparency in risk communication: National and local government perspectives
Åsa Boholm
University of Gothenburg/GRI, SE 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden

Transparency is a popular word in the discourse and rhetoric on virtues of public policy. According to the Cambridge Dictionary it means “the characteristic of being easy to see through” (visibility) and “the quality of being done in an open way without secrets” (openness). The norm of transparency prescribes that government institutions should make visible what decisions they make and why, and that information should be disclosed to the full extent. As the magic wand of successful democratic government, transparency is believed to promote accountability, legitimacy and public trust. Also in the risk communication literature, transparency figures as a key element for achieving successful communication. Critics, however, have pointed out that transparency policies in risk regulation and communication can be problematic for several reasons. In cases of scientific controversy, when information is scientifically complex or there is high uncertainty, transparency may feed dis-trust, confusion and worry among receivers.

This study aims to shed light on the role of transparency in risk communication. It consists of two Swedish samples: public officials at six government agencies (food, chemicals, environmental protection, road and rail infrastructure, contingency planning, and housing and zoning planning) (n= 23) and forty municipalities (n=40). Data derives from telephone interviews on a range of topics relating to risk management and risk communication (including transparency).  

The findings suggest considerable differences in how public officials understand the role of transparency in risk communication at the national and the local level respectively. At the national level the generally view is that transparency is unquestionable positive. Although some hesitance is expressed that too much openness regarding information on risk might contribute to unfounded worry among the public, the common idea was that the provisioning of plentiful information on risk issues would promote empowered and knowledgeable citizens, with good capacity to make informed decisions about risk in their daily lives. The municipal officials (in our case emergency planners) however, were much less confident about the inherent value of transparency. Many actually argued against communicating the municipal risk and vulnerability plans to the local citizens. Two reasons stand out: a) citizens might become confused and worried and b) the security of the municipality might be jeopardized if sensitive information about identified vulnerabilities were openly presented. The study suggests that there are crucial differences between national and local government levels regarding transparency in risk communication.


Government agencies’ risk communication: a corpus linguistic approach to the analysis of web content
Max Boholm
University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Research Institute, SE-40530 Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden

This presentation addresses government agencies’ risk communication with the public through their web sites. Seven Swedish government agencies have been selected in the following policy areas: (i) chemicals, (ii) civil contingency, (iii) energy, (iv) the environment, (v) food, (vi) housing and building, and (vii) traffic are explored and compared. The analysis is based on corpus linguistic methods. In corpus linguistics, the uses of linguistic features (e.g. words and phrases) are in large bodies of texts, i.e. corpora (the word “corpus” is Latin for “body”). In this study, the corpus analysed consists of the HTML-files of the seven agencies’ web sites. Corpus linguistic tools applied in the analysis are: (i) frequency lists, which show how frequent different linguistic forms are in the corpus; (ii) collocation analysis, which shows which words are the most frequent to co-occur with a target word, e.g. “risk”; and (iii) concordance analysis, which systematically shows the contexts in which a target word is used. This study applies these techniques in order to address the following research questions: To what extent do the agencies communicate about “risk”? Which concepts in the semantic field of risk are in focus (“risk”, “danger”, “safety” or other)? How do the agencies conceptualise risk? For example, is risk conceptualised quantitatively or qualitatively? Is it understood probabilistically? What specific risk issues are in focus on their web sites? How are these issues construed? For example, which values are considered at stake (e.g. health or environment)? With respect to each question the results for the seven agencies are compared, enabling conclusions about general and specific patterns of Swedish government agencies’ risk communication. Thus, the study addresses the question of whether the agencies communicate about risk in a uniform way, or if they differ, for example, depending on the policy area that they regulate. Another contribution of the presentation is to illustrate how a corpus based approach can be applied in the study of risk communication.

Tuesday, June 20th - Room #1 - 11:00 - 12:30
Symposium - Adaptation to global changes & extreme events
Individuals and communities adaptation to global changes and extreme events
Rui Gaspar
University of Algarve, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal
William James Center for Research, ISPA-Instituto Universitario, 1149-041, Lisbon, Portugal

Symposium abstract:

In a world facing high magnitude global changes (e.g. climate change) and extreme natural (e.g. heat/cold waves; disease outbreaks) and man-made (e.g. air pollution; terrorism) events, research focused on a better understanding of citizens’ adaptation strategies has gained a worldwide priority (e.g. Clayton et al, 2015; WHO, 2015). Despite evidence that people can reduce their susceptibility to these changes/events and adapt overtime (Arbuthnott, Hajat, Heaviside, & Vardoulakis, 2016) by using various individual coping strategies (e.g. Homberg, Stolberg & Wagner, 2007) and community level actions (e.g. Demski et al, 2016), a better understanding of how these adaptation processes take place is needed. Given this need, the proposed symposium will focus on presenting methodological/theoretical approaches and empirical studies that address it. Particular examples such as disease outbreaks/epidemics, extreme weather events (heat waves) and coastal changes will be addressed.


ICTs data collection for investigating human coping and resilience during potentially stressful extreme events
Rui Gaspar 1, 2, Zheng Yan 3, Samuel Domingos 2, Rita Beja 2
1 University of Algarve, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal
2 William James Center for Research, ISPA-IU, 1149-041, Lisbon, Portugal
3 University at Albany, State University of New York, NY, NY, United States

Human’s life consists of various ordinary events (e.g., eating a favorable breakfast and taking a driving license exam) and extreme events (e.g., experiencing a major earthquake and encountering a wide infectious disease breakout). It has been well known that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can help ordinary people deal with ordinary daily events effectively and efficiently. However, it is less recognized for whether, what, how, and why ICTs can help people handle extreme events effectively and efficiently, while it is particularly important for human beings to develop a systematic scientific knowledge of using ICTs to handle various unexpected but devastating extreme events.

Hence, the proposed communication will present preliminary results from a systematic literature review focused on extreme events defined as: Any occurrence or sequence of occurrences that deviate in socio-physical parameters from a previously existing “normal” system state, demanding event-specific socio-physical system restoration and adaptation. These occurrences can represent either natural or human causes with effects across physical and spatial scales and levels of a social system (intra-individual, inter-individual, intra-group, inter-group, intra-organizational, inter-organizational). Based on this, we sought to answer the following questions: 1) Which are the new forms of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) data collection during extreme (natural and man-made) events?; 2) Which types of human activities mediated by the new ICTs use, can take place during extreme (natural and man-made) events and which adaptive functions do they serve?; 3) Which new insights can the new ICTs data give us concerning the study of human coping and resilience during extreme (natural and man-made) potentially stressful events? Preliminary answers to these questions will be provided, along with a discussion of its implications for risk communication and crisis communication.


Baixo Vouga Lagunar: how does local populations perceive planning adaptation to climate changes?
Fabiana Freitas 1, Ana I. Lillebø 1, Nuno Rodrigues 1, Lisa Sousa 2, Fátima L. Alves 2, Catarina Roseta-Palma 3, Luísa Lima 3, Sílvia Luís 3
1 Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal
2 Departamento Ambiente e Ordenamento & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal
3 Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), CIS-IUL, 1649-026, Lisboa, Portugal

The Baixo Vouga Lagunar (BVL) is located in the confluence of Vouga River with Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon, which is integrated in Natura 2000 network. BVL natural characteristics permit a strong and balanced relationship between humans, land and water. The human presence, through farming, shaped the landscape as a function of production objectives and economic sustainability. Being a location of agriculture and life-stock activities and an important ecotone for several species, the adaptation to climate changes is mandatory if the provisioning of the ecosystem services are to be preserved.

The expected impacts of climate change in BVL include: changes in the precipitation pattern, increase of coastline erosion and saltwater intrusion through the lagoon and aquifers in adjacent areas. Moreover, the estimated increase in temperature and changes in the precipitation pattern will lead to drought events during the summer and floods during the winter. The changes in the precipitation pattern will additionally reduce the capability for aquifer recharge and in combination with sea level rise, increase the exposure to saltwater intrusion in BVL (Dias et al. 2014; Stefanova et al. 2015).

In the present study the theory of planned behaviour was applied as a general framework to understand stakeholders’ engagement in the process of planning adaptation to climate change, using 2050 as a temporal reference (Luís et al. 2015). For the BVL, 31 stakeholders responded to a survey. Results showed that Stakeholders’ intention of engaging in planning adaptation to CC was relatively high. Intention was mostly correlated to subjective norm towards engaging, which was medium, indicating stakeholders felt a medium amount of social pressure to engage in this process. This suggests that intention was likely determined by subjective norm. In turn, subjective norm was correlated to normative beliefs (e.g., towards other stakeholders and policymakers), and therefore was likely determined by such beliefs.

To the local community, BVL is still regarded as an ecosystem in a good condition, with a prevalent perceived risk for its fragility to climate change impacts. It is important for the policy makers to be aware of the locals´ perceptions towards climate changes impacts and policies and their willingness to be engaged in the process. The engagement of local communities should be encouraged as they can be a pivotal factor on the elaboration of realistic and executable policies, as well be a decisive factor for the achievement of the objectives aimed for climate changes adaption plans.


Promoting citizen’s resilience and adaptive potential to extreme heat weather events: the role of demands vs. resources appraisals
Samuel Domingos 1, Rui Gaspar 1, 2, João Marôco 1, Wändi Bruine de Bruin 3
1 William James Center for Research, ISPA-IU, Portugal, 1149-041, Lisbon, Portugal
2 University of Algarve, Portugal, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal
3 Centre for Decision Research, Leeds University Business School, United Kingdom, LS2 9JT, Leeds, Portugal

Due to climate change, extreme heat weather events (EHWEs) such as heatwaves, are becoming more frequent, intense, and long-lasting (Lefevre et al., 2015), presenting increasing demands to citizens and health authorities (WHO, 2015). One way of responding to this challenge is through understanding how citizens appraise the demands posed by EHWEs (e.g. perceived constraints on daily activities) and resources to cope with those demands (e.g. perceived availability of alternatives to deal with those constraints). This knowledge may enable, for example, evidence-based risk communications and interventions to potentiate citizen’s resilience and adaptation to EHWEs. However, little is known about citizens’ appraisal of demands posed by EHWEs and the resources to cope with those demands. To better understand this, a theoretical approach based on the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat (e.g. Blascovich, 2008; Blascovich & Mendes, 2001) was created and used to perform an exploratory qualitative study with the goal of identifying citizens’ mental models of EHWEs. Moreover, this allowed the exploration of differences in the appraisal of EHWEs demands vs. resources to cope with those demands, as result from an experimental manipulation of a prototypical EHWE (e.g. affective framing). For that we requested participants to evoke a prototypical (positive/negative/no-frame) EHWE, followed by a semi-structured qualitative interview that allowed us to explore citizens’ mental models of EHWEs and differences in the appraisal of demands vs. resources. Intentions of protection against EHWEs were also collected. The results of this study will be presented at the symposium, and its implications to the promotion of citizen’s resilience and adaptive potential to EHWEs will be discussed.


Which meteorological index is the best descriptor for winter mortality in elderly people in Lisbon district?
Susana Silva 1, Helena Mouriño 2, Liliana Antunes 1, Jorge Marques 3, Silvia Antunes 3, Carlos Dias 1, Baltazar Nunes 1
1 Departamento de Epidemiologia, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, 1649-016, Lisboa, Portugal
2 Departamento de Estatística e Investigação Operacional, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016, Lisboa, Portugal
3 Divisão de Clima e Alterações Climáticas, Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, 1749-077, Lisboa, Portugal

Background

As recognized by WHO, health is influenced climate change. Several studies have already provided the association between ambient temperature and mortality, hospital admissions and affluence to urgency services, in elderly population, especially due to cardiovascular and circulatory diseases. However, few studies have explored the association between elderly mortality in winter and extreme cold weather, considering as covariables different meteorological indices.

The present study aimed to assess which meteorological index is the best descriptor for winter mortality in elderly population living in Lisbon district.

Methods

Mortality data was provided by Statistics Portugal (INE), meteorological data from The Portuguese Institute for Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA) and influenza-like-illness rates from Portuguese general practitioners (GP) sentinel network (Rede Médicos-Sentinela).

Distributed lag linear and non-linear models (DLNM) were applied to study the effect of cold on mortality by all causes of death, and, particularly, by circulatory and respiratory diseases, in the Lisbon district, in the winter season (from November to March) between 2002 and 2012. Based on different combinations of the meteorological variables (that is, mean temperature, mean temperature and wind speed, mean temperature and humidity, and windchill temperature), several models were fitted and their performance compared. All models were adjusted for trend and seasonality, and for the confounding effect of flu activity. As a reference for relative risk (RR) calculations, the 50th percentile of each temperature series was used.

Results

The best fit was found from a linear relation between temperature (either mean or windchill) and both mortality causes under study (all causes, and circulatory and respiratory diseases). The results showed that the effect of cold appears with delay and persisted for about 23 to 30 days. The maximum effect occurs with the lowest temperature registered (Mean Temperature=-0,4ºC and windchill Temperature=-3,96ºC) and with a delay of 5 days.

The highest cumulative relative risk for all causes of death was found using the windchill temperature [RR=1,8 (CI95%: 1,7; 2,0)]. For mortality by circulatory and respiratory diseases, the highest cumulative relative risk was also found using the windchill temperature [RR=2,0 (CI95%: 1,8; 2,3)].

Conclusions

Cold weather seems to be a strong predictor of mortality in Lisbon district, with the strongest association found out between cold temperature and both circulatory and respiratory mortality. Windchill temperature seems to be a better predictor of mortality than mean temperature.

Tuesday, June 20th - Room #2 - 11:00 - 12:30
Standard Poster Session - Poster platform presentations
Should children be risk educated in school and, if so, how?
Delcina Burden, David Ball
Middlesex University, NW4 4BT, Hendon, United Kingdom

This research project formed the submission of a third year Middlesex University students’ Occupational and Environmental Dissertation project for the BSc Environmental Health degree. The desktop papers’ concept was explored through analysis and examination of secondary literature available in the public domain and through the Middlesex University library.

The subject is of significant importance and interest to the researcher due to her recent journey as a new mother, her keen interest in occupational health and safety and perhaps, most importantly, as a person with first-hand experience of risky situations through an unsettling and distressing childhood. A subject of such breadth and ambiguity it was clear to the researcher by the end of this paper that the subject concept remains undefined. The interpretation of ‘risk education’ varied depending on the stakeholders interest in the matter and presented at least three key definitions: occupational health and safety education (OHS education) (DETR, 2000); safety education (education to prevent injuries caused by avoidable accidents) (RoSPA, 2015); and health promotion education (education to encourage children to consider the health implications of certain activities such as smoking or drugs) (Weyman and Shearn, 2005).

The paper further explored how children learn and process risk, highlighting cognitive, social, emotional and mental contributory factors, each influencing children’s perception, understanding and attitude towards risk (Morrongiello & Matheis, 2007;Cook et al, 2012). In general, boys were more willing to enter into (risky) situations that had greater levels of possible negative outcome (loss or harm) than girls, whereas girls decisions’ about risk were greatly influenced by their parents behaviour and teachings (Hillier and Morrongiello, 1998; Boles 2004; Potts et al, 1998).

The researcher began the project with the question “Should risk education be taught in schools and if so, how?” but perhaps blindly and naively considered this from an occupational health and safety stance. However, through the powers of research she reached an understanding that risk plays a key role in who we are as people, in all aspects of our lives, with risk taking defining us, and us defining risk taking. In an increasingly health and safety conscious world are we believing all risk is bad and attempting to create a risk averse society, or should we intentionally expose children to risk? Are we too safe? The topic was concluded to be too vast to answer the question posed….icing and cake are two words that come to mind!


Risk Perception and Terrorist Activity: The case of Sweden
Saman Rashid
Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25, Östersund, Sweden

We investigate whether terrorist activity abroad affect risk perception regarding terrorism at home. Terrorism uses violence deliberately to obtain political or social objectives thorough the extortion of a large audience beyond that of the immediate victims. Although the most common form of terrorist activities are domestic, transnational terrorist attacks, which involves more than two countries, may take place in order to capture more media attention and, hence, affect people emotionally by spreading fear and insecurity. Previous literature show that terrorist incidents in a country reflects people’s risk perception regarding terrorism. However, little is known about whether risk perception regarding terrorism are effected by terrorist incidents in other countries.  This paper contribute to the literature by investigating whether risk perception regarding terrorism in a country with almost no terrorist incidents, Sweden, is affected by different terrorist activities abroad. For the empirical analyses we use micro-level data on risk perception obtained from a national survey conducted in Sweden in four different years, 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2106. Unlike previous literature, our data contains direct question regarding risk perceptions in question. Data on terrorist activities is obtained from Global Terrorism Database (GDT). We make distinction between domestic and transnational terrorist incidence to investigate whether their impact deferrers. We also consider the geographic distance between the country (or region) where the terrorist incidents take place and Sweden. We include individual characteristics in order to control for individual heterogeneity and to consider various socioeconomic aspects. We expect a positive relationship between the extent of terrorist incidents and risk perception regarding terrorism, nonetheless the relationship is stronger for transnational terrorism than domestic ones. Furthermore, we expect that the relationship declines with geographic distance.     

 


Changes in terror related risk perceptions in Germany after the Berlin Christmas Market Attack
Kristina Stumpf, Daniela Knuth, Silke Schmidt
Department Health and Prevention Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald, 17487, Greifswald, Germany

Background: In December 2016, a semitrailer truck was steered into a crowded Christmas market in Berlin. This incident gained notoriety as the first Islamist terrorist attack carried out on German territory with civilian casualties as well as severe injuries. An incident like this in one’s homeland is likely to influence how terror risks are perceived in the population. Experience with an incident can affect how its risk is perceived (Knuth, Kehl, Hulse, & Schmidt, 2014). In turn, risk perceptions may influence what kind of mitigating measures citizens demand of their government. Understanding the dynamics of perceived terror risk is essential in order to deal responsibly with demands of the public. The research presented here forms a basis for the understanding of lay people’s risk perception in regard to terrorism.

Study: Four days after the attack on the Christmas market in Berlin, we conducted an online survey questioning the participants about different aspects of risk perception regarding terrorism. Additional to risk perception, general resilience of participants was assessed. The data will be scrutinized in relation to data of risk perception and resilience gathered in the earlier study. This comparison allows for the assessment of stability or changes in terror related risk perception or different aspects thereof over time.

Method: The sample was recruited from participants of a previous study in 2012/2013 concerning terrorism who had given their permission to be contacted again.  We approached 413 former participants, whereof 53 were unattainable. We anticipate a response from around 120 participants. Participants rated the following dimensions/aspects of terror related risk perception at both points in time: (1) likelihood to experience a terroristic event; (2) concern with regard to experiencing a terroristic event; (3) expected severity of consequences of a terrorist attack in general and (4) for their own lives.

Results: In the immediate aftermath of the Berlin Attack, we expect risk perception in general to be higher than during the first study. Our results offer valuable insight into the influence of experience with terror in one’s own country – even if the experience only was made through the media – on perceived risk.  


Leader normativity in crisis management: tales from a school fire
Erna Danielsson 1, Angelika Sjöstedt-Landén 2
1 Mid Sweden University Risk and Crisis Research Centre, 831 25, Östersund, Sweden
2 Mid Sweden University Forum for Gender Studies, 851 70, Sundsvall, Sweden

This study examines the role of the normalized narratives of leaders in crisis management. Our theoretical point of departure is that leader normativity legitimizes certain positions and actions in a crisis management narrative and marginalizes others. To explore such processes in narratives, we use feminist theory and critical management studies. The study shows that leader normativity creates gendered differences that result in both inequalities and the hiding of any parts of crisis management that do not apply to leader normativity. While mapping how leader normativity is narrated, the authors also want to write a politics of recognition of that which becomes excluded from crisis management as a result. The study shows that there is a strong norm for crisis management as an individualistic perspective that focuses on heroes and higher-level management as the people managing a crisis. Support for a way of describing crisis management as a collective achievement and caring perspectives become marginalized.


Digital interaction in education in the age of the unforeseen
Gila Hammer Furnes 1, Herner Saeverot 1, Glenn-Egil Torgersen 2
1 Department of Education, Western Norway University, 5020, Bergen, Norway
2 Norwegian Defence University College, 0015, Oslo, Norway

Future education should prepare students for a world in which interaction [in Norwegian: samhandling] between individuals is believed to be increasingly digital. The problem is that we do not know exactly how this should be facilitated educationally and what the consequences may be for the education in general. The concept of interaction is complex and involves not only the interaction but also knowledge sharing and collaboration. One goal of interacting digitally is increasing the availability of knowledge and the efficiency of learning. However, replacing face-to-face interaction with digital interaction may have different implications for the interaction itself, for example risk exposure, digital terror and personal bullying. Other implications may include unwanted digital surveillance, infiltration, use of false identities and hacking, as well as propaganda and indoctrination, for example in the form of political manifestos, warning signs ahead of terrorism and ideological articles of political and military situations. Another type of risk may also occur to a greater extent than before: Academic learning may be different than the education programs have envisaged in relation to the curriculum, as digital interaction during the learning process can lead to knowledge sharing and learning with actors with different motives and professional insight than the designations of the curricula. The question is whether this should be seen as an advantage or disadvantage for learning and development? This in turn raises the question about the need for control versus freedom when it comes to using digital and social media in relation to academic learning. In this paper, we will discuss whether digital interaction  requires a new pedagogy, which, to a greater extent than before, takes into account risks and unforeseen events.


Social perceptions and national security risks. A Romanian perspective
Valentin NICULA, Irena CHIRU
researcher, The National Institute for Intelligence Studies, "Mihai Viteazul" National Intelligence Academy, 075100, Bucharest, Romania

The REACT project wants to identify how communication strategies can be built with an impact on the process of effective risk awareness and prevention in the field of national security. To achieve this, we have proposed, inter alia, to identify which is the social perception about the risks to national security, to evaluate to what extent this perceptions differs from the way in which risks are defined in the official documents governing national security and, subsequently, to outline some elements to substantiate effective communication strategies.

In this paper we try to evaluate the steps taken so far by the project team,  to present the partial results obtained after applying the Q sort method on a sample of 100 subjects, from four different target groups and to identify some lessons learned throughout this process.

Acknowledgement: „This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS – UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-1669.”


Social Media in Times of Crisis: Evolving Uses of Twitter in Turkey
Yucel Torun, Stella Maria Gkika, Seda Kundak
Istanbul Technical University, 34469, Istanbul, Turkey

Either as a way of reaching the public to promote disaster preparedness measures or searching for timely, accurate and legitimate information in the immediate aftermath of an urgent event or in any other manner concerning risk and crisis communication, social media use gains in importance. In the interim, traditional media still have essential roles, whereas, for many duties, evolving functions of social media tools are increasingly being visible. Emergency organizations, citizens, volunteer groups, governmental organizations employ various social media platforms for different purposes like early warning, crowd-sourcing, monitoring the public, accessing and disseminating information, seeking for the assistance and so forth. In times of crisis, one of the micro-blogging sites is extensively used as a medium for interactive communication. In many recent extraordinary situations, such as earthquakes in Haiti and Nepal, the hurricane in Katrina, terrorist attacks in different European capital cities, individuals and organizations utilized Twitter to facilitate information flow.

Experiencing various types of crises, people in Turkey also have often practiced dynamic use of Twitter during and after a number of incidents in the recent years. From time to time, Twitter users have helped to conduct situational awareness via sharing content from the scene, coordinated with other actors, contributed to identifying suspected attackers, provided geo-tagged information, tried to raise attention on risky environments along with different purposes. These intentions are mostly consistent with the efforts of improving the overall picture. In this study, Twitter data about several incidents recently occurred in Turkey is analyzed. The messages have been obtained through the Streaming and REST APIs(Application Programming Interface) of Twitter. The analysis is based on the literature review on Twitter use in crisis settings and distinct utilization of the micro-blogging platform in the local context. Several topics constitute the study, including rumor and misleading information propagation, the self-correcting performance of the community, the role and behaviors of the emergency organizations and the censorship on social media platforms by the government after controversial circumstances.


 A Tool for Integration of Different Accident Databases
Kun Zhang, Yoshiki Mikami
Department of Nuclear System Safety, Nagaoka University of Technology, 940-2188, Nagaoka, Japan

In order to monitor product-related accidents, the major industrialized countries have constructed injury surveillance system and product recall notification system in recent decades. This study proposes a new tool for describing 12 product-related accident databases stored at the Accident Information Databank (AIDB) of Japan. The tool is named Product-related Risk Information Description Framework (PRIDF), which was developed to integrate these databases. PRIDF is composed of five categories of elements (host, vector, agent, environment, and consequences), 50 attributes (seven of which are supplementary information given in the remarks section), and a set of vocabularies for the description of these attributes. PRIDF combines two conceptual models: an epidemiological model set forth in the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Injury Surveillance Guidelines and a technical model presented in the safety-related standards of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and International Labour Organization (ILO). The epidemiological framework composed of host, agent, vector and environment provides us a useful framework for better understanding of product-related risks in a society-level context. At the same time, injuries to consumers caused by various types of hazards are technical and microscopic processes in nature, and their proper description requires a detailed technical framework and appropriate vocabularies, including lists of hazards, classification of products and mechanisms of accident/injury. Needed vocabularies are collected from international sources like ISO and WHO, and are tailored for our purpose. In this study, the advantages of the proposed PRIDF are discussed through its application experiments to four major product accident/injury information systems operating in Japan and Europe: Japan’s NCAC reporting system (PIO-NET), Japan’s NITE Accident Database (NITE-ADB), and the EU’s Injury Database (EU-IDB) and RAPEX alerting system. The proposed PRIDF will be useful in the data integration work needed by AIDB in future, and in the data mining work for product accident/injury prevention at two aspects: macroscopic data mining to identify social risk factors and microscopic data mining to identify technical-level risk factors. Although our proposal is based on Japanese experiences and designed primarily for Japanese users, the extensive use of internationally recognized classifications and vocabularies makes PRIDF  a worthy candidate for the integration of accident/injury data in other countries. While international consensus exists for the descriptive frameworks of mortality statistics and occupational health and safety statistics, no such unanimity exists for product accident data. The proposed PRIDF can be used as a candidate to fill this gap.

Tuesday, June 20th - Foyer - 11:00 - 12:30
Symposium - Measuring Human Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution
SYMPOSIUM:  Measuring Human Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution
Chris Frey
Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering North Carolina State University, 27695-7908, Raleigh, United States

SYMPOSIUM ABSTRACT:  This symposium will feature presentations by experts in the development, deployment, and interpretation of sensors for measuring human exposure to air quality, with a focus on transportation-related exposure to fine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, and other traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP).  The symposium participants represent active research teams in Europe, the United States, and China.  Issues to be addressed during the symposium include  user and policy needs, research needs and opportunities, instrumentation and capabilities, study objectives, study design, field data collection methods, quality assurance, data processing and analysis, and inferences from data.  Methods for measurement, study design, and data analysis will be illustrated based on case studies.  The case studies include measurements of traffic-related air pollution in the cities of Surrey (UK), Raleigh (USA), and Hong Kong.  


Measuring Human Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution:  Case Study for Raleigh (USA)
Chris Frey, Sanjam Singh
Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering North Carolina State University, 27695-7908, Raleigh, United States

This symposium will feature presentations by experts in the development, deployment, and interpretation of sensors for measuring human exposure to air quality, with a focus on transportation-related exposure to fine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, and other traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP).  The symposium participants represent active research teams in Europe, the United States, and China.  Issues to be addressed during the symposium include  user and policy needs, research needs and opportunities, instrumentation and capabilities, study objectives, study design, field data collection methods, quality assurance, data processing and analysis, and inferences from data.  Methods for measurement, study design, and data analysis will be illustrated based on case studies.  The case studies include measurements of traffic-realted air pollution in the cities of Surrey (UK), Raleigh (USA), and Hong Kong.  The Raleigh case study features measurements of pedestrian, cyclist, motorist, and transit bus rider exposures to fine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and ozone during five time periods, including winter, spring, and multiple summer study periods.  The study design focuses on the following hypothesized key sources of variability in exposure concentrations for each pollutant:  transportation mode, time of day, type of location, and season.  Using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), paired t-tests, and other methods, the magnitude and significance of these sources of variability, and their interactions, were quantified.  The findings illustrate that, despite substantial variability in ambient concentrations, it is possible to obtain statistically robust findings regarding comparisons.  Furthermore, the factors that were identified as statistically significant are also plausible in terms of the expected mechanistic relationship with exposures.  The results have implications for study design, data analysis, and with regard to individual and governmental decision making.


A case study of individual exposure assessment using new Personal Exposure Kit (PEK) in Hong Kong
Zhi Ning
City University of Hong Kong, 0000, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated cities in the world with over 7 million population living in the territory of 1,106 km2. The well-developed roadway transport network in Hong Kong also faces issues of narrow and congested roads with tall buildings forming street canyons that effectively trap the traffic pollutants and elevate the pollution level inside the streets.

Currently, the only publicly available air quality information source is from the government Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AQMS) operated by Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) that measure the pollutant concentration at different districts in Hong Kong. However, these fixed air stations failed to represent the actual public exposure since the individuals may experience a wide variety of outdoor locations and indoor environments in a day by themselves, and different homes, offices and commute modes also have varying levels of pollutants. The mismatch of information creates the uncertainty to evaluate the population exposure and the gaps of individual’s expectations to understand and mitigate their own air exposure related health risks. There is no doubt a better understanding of individual’s exposure in different environments helps to identify the source, activity or microenvironment that contribute the significant health risks, and enact effective mitigation measures for determinants of exposure.

This study represents the first attempt of real-world monitoring of personal air pollution exposure by a uniform population group who are the volunteers working in International Commerce Centre (ICC) in West Kowloon, Hong Kong. We developed and employed portable sensor package to monitor the air pollutant PM2.5 exposure profiles of the volunteer groups who work in the same office environment but reside in different districts and travel by different commute modes. Over 70 volunteers have participated in the study by carrying the personal exposure kits (PEKs) to monitor their personal time activities and surrounding air quality. A total of 111 weekday and 50 weekend complete profiles were collected and analysed.

The outcomes of this study are expected to improve our understanding on the relation between the individual time activity and exposure risk, the contribution of different outdoor and indoor microenvironments to the integrated exposure for Hong Kong residents. The active engagement of the volunteers offered a new opportunity to raise the environmental awareness of the general public to understand and mitigate their individual exposure health risks.


Development of a Personalized Real-time Air-quality Informatics System for Exposure in Hong Kong
Alexis Lau
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering & Division of Environment. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China

Air pollution risk is particularly high in urban areas in or near regions of rapid development, such as Hong Kong (HK) and other cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Severe regional emissions, heavy traffic, high population density and packed city morphology with deep street canyons often combine to create a shroud of pollution over HK. An earlier study by Hong Kong University, Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKUST and Civic Exchange noted that air pollution was associated annually with over 1,600 deaths, 64,000 hospital bed-days, 6.8 million doctor visits and HK$20 billion in medical costs in HK (Loh et al., 2008). Unfortunately, for most people in Hong Kong, when asked what they think they can do in case of a severe air pollution episode, most people are resigned to the belief that there is not much the average person can do to protect themselves against exposure to harmful air pollutants.

To protect oneself in case of a severe air pollution episode, one must have good understanding of the pollution exposure during a typical day, including where and how does one get the largest dose of harmful air pollutants. Currently, such detailed air quality and exposure information is not readily available for the public, and hence it is difficult for them to consider taking appropriate actions or modifying their activities to reduce the exposure to the harmful air pollutants.

In this talk, we shall describe the development of a Personalized Real-time Air-quality Informatics System for Exposure in Hong Kong. By leveraging the rapid development of microenvironmental sensor technologies, computer modeling, big data analytics and widespread use of GPS-enable mobile devices, this system shall provide real-time air quality information down to street-level in Hong Kong, as well as quantitative estimates of air pollutant exposure for users in Hong Kong.  We envision that residents and community groups can use the system to get quantitative information about the air quality variations in their neighbourhood. Information is power. People can make their own decisions in lifestyle or daily activities (e.g., time, routes and transport modes, and the ventilation system of their homes and offices) when they understand the differences in pollutant exposure depending on the choices they make.

Tuesday, June 20th - Foyer - 13:00 - 13:30
- Benelux Chapter meeting
Tuesday, June 20th - Room #1 - 13:00 - 13:30
- Nordic Chapter meeting
Tuesday, June 20th - Room #2 - 13:00 - 13:30
- Iberian Chapter meeting
Tuesday, June 20th - Auditorium #2 - 13:30 - 15:00
Symposium - European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Approaches
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)’s Approaches to Providing Guidance on Uncertainty, Weight of Evidence and Biological Relevance in Scientific Assessments
Maged Younes 2, Tony Hardy 1, Jan Alexander 3, Tobin Robinson 1
1 European Food Safety Authority, 43126, Parma, Italy
2 Independent International Expert, Global Public Health, 1295, Mies, Switzerland
3 Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0403, Oslo, Norway

Within the risk analysis framework, risk assessment has the critical role of setting health standards to protect humans, animals and the environment from hazards of a physical, chemical or biological nature.

The European Food Safety Authority adopted the ‘Open EFSA’ approach, which aspires to improve the overall quality of the available information and data used for its scientific outputs, and to comply with normative and societal expectations of openness and transparency. In line with these principles, EFSA is developing three separate but closely related guidance documents for its expert Panels to use in their scientific assessments. These documents address three key elements of any evidence-based scientific assessment: the analysis of Uncertainty, and the determination of Weight of Evidence and Biological Relevance.

The first document provides guidance on how to identify, characterise, document and explain all types of uncertainty arising within an individual assessment for all areas of EFSA’s remit. The draft Guidance provides a harmonised and flexible framework within which different described qualitative and quantitative methods may be selected from a toolbox of potential methods described according to the needs of each assessment.

The second document on weight of evidence provides a general framework for considering and documenting the approach used to evaluate and weigh the assembled evidence when addressing the main question of a given scientific assessment or questions that need to be answered in order to provide, in conjunction, an overall answer. This includes assessing the relevance, reliability and consistency of the available evidence. It also includes approaches to integrating the evidence.

The third draft document offers a general framework for establishing the biological relevance of observations at various stages of the assessment. It identifies generic issues related to biological relevance in the appraisal of pieces of evidence and specific criteria to consider when deciding on whether or not an observed effect is biologically relevant (i.e. is adverse or shows a positive health effect).

This symposium aims at summarising the work of the EFSA Scientific Committee on the development of harmonised methodologies on the three aforementioned topics in different areas of food safety, including chemical risk assessment, microbiological risk assessment and environmental risk assessment. Presentations will include, in addition to a general introduction, a description of the principles of each of the aspects addressed, as well as a presentation on reporting and communicating the outcomes, with emphasis on uncertainties.


The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)’s Approaches to Providing Guidance on Weight of Evidence Assessment
Maged Younes 1, Jean Lou C.M. Dorne 2, Andrew D. M. Hart 3, Nikolaos Georgiadis 2
1 Independent International Expert, Global Public Health, 1295, Mies, Switzerland
2 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy, 43126, Parma, Italy
3 Fera, YO41 1LZ, York, United Kingdom

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is developing a guidance document on the use of the Weight of evidence approach in scientific assessments applicable to all areas under EFSA’s remit.

It addresses the use of the weight of evidence applying both qualitative and quantitative approaches. In developing the guidance, the WG took into account related European and international activities to ensure consistency and harmonisation of methodologies.

This guidance document is intended to guide EFSA panels and staff on the use of the weight of evidence approach in scientific assessments. It provides a flexible framework within which experts can apply those methods which most appropriately fit the purpose of their individual assessment.

Weight of evidence assessment is a process in which evidence is assembled, evaluated with regard to its potential contribution to addressing a question, and integrated to determine the relative support for possible answers to the assessment question. The document considers the weight of evidence assessment as comprising three basic steps: 1. assembling the evidence, 2. weighing the evidence, 3. integrating the evidence.

The present document defines reliability, relevance and consistency, in terms of their contributions to the weight of evidence assessment: Reliability is the extent to which the information comprising a line of evidence is correct. Relevance is the contribution a line of evidence would make to answer a specified question, if the information comprising the line of evidence was correct. Consistency is the extent to which the contributions of different lines of evidence to answering the specified question are compatible.

While no single approach is prescribed, pointers towards available methodologies are provided together with criteria for selecting the most appropriate one for individual assessments.

Reporting should be consistent with EFSA’s general principles regarding transparency and reporting. In a weight of evidence assessment this should include justifying the choice of methods used, documenting all steps of the procedure in sufficient detail for them to be repeated, and making clear where and how expert judgement has been used. Reporting should also include referencing and, if appropriate, listing or summarising all evidence considered, identifying any evidence that was excluded; detailed reporting of the conclusions; and sufficient information on intermediate results for readers to understand how the conclusions were reached.

Several case studies covering the various areas under EFSA’s remit are annexed to the guidance document to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach.


The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)’s Approaches to Providing Guidance on Biological Relevance
Jan Alexander 1, Nikolaos Georgiadis 2, Bernard Bottex 2
1 Institute of Public Health, 0403, Oslo, Norway
2 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA),, 43126, Parma, Italy

EFSA requested  its Scientific Committee to prepare a guidance document providing generic issues and criteria to consider biological relevance, particularly when deciding on whether an observed effect is of biological relevance, i.e. is adverse (or shows a positive health effect) or not.

The opinion clarifies a number of definitions and concepts, such as, responses of a biological system to exposure, mode of action and adverse outcome pathways, thresholds, critical effect, modelling approaches, biomarkers, which are central to biological relevance and in order to achieve that these concepts are used in a consistent way across EFSA areas of activity.

The list of generic issues (e.g. nature and size of the biological changes or differences, including the relevance of the biological systems were the effects are observed) to consider when deciding on whether an observed effect is biologically relevant should be applicable to all relevant EFSA Scientific Panels and Scientific Committee.

A framework was developed in which biological relevance is considered at three main stages related to the process of dealing with evidence: 1) Development of the assessment strategy, in this context, specification of agents, effects, subjects and conditions. 2) Collection and extraction of data, i.e. identification of potentially biologically relevant evidence/data as specified in the Assessment strategy. 3) Appraisal of the relevance of the agents, subjects, effects and conditions, i.e. reviewing dimensions of biological relevance for each data set: a) Agent; it should be considered whether the assessment is based on the agent of concern or on a surrogate agent. b) Subject; in case proxies are used consider the relevance of effects occurring in these for the subject under assessment. c) Effect; a wide variety of effects may be considered. Consideration should be given as to whether the effect is causally related to exposure to the agent, and the nature of the effect should also be taken into account, i.a. homeostatic response, adaptive, directly or indirectly adverse or beneficial. Finally for effects where the size of the effect is critical, it should be assessed whether the magnitude of the effect is sufficient to be of biological relevance and thereby of importance for the assessment outcome. It should be noted that the biological relevance of an effect could vary according to the assessment question. d) Conditions; it should be considered whether the conditions of a biological (test) system, e.g. exposures, models,  are relevant for the assessment.

 


The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)’s Approaches to Providing Guidance on Uncertainty in Scientific Assessments
Caroline Merten 1, Andrew D. M. Hart 2, Andrea Germini 1, Anthony R. Hardy 1
1 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 43126, Parma, Italy
2 FERA, YO41 1LZ, York, United Kingdom

The European Food Safety Authority is developing practical guidance for its expert risk assessors on how to identify, characterise, document and explain all types of uncertainty arising within an individual assessment for all areas of EFSA’s remit. The draft Guidance does not prescribe which methods should be used but provides a harmonised and flexible framework within which different qualitative and quantitative methods may be selected from a toolbox of described methods according to the needs of each assessment. The intention is that each scientific assessment should say clearly and unambiguously what sources of uncertainty have been identified and what is their combined impact on the final outcome; what range of outcomes is possible, and how probable they are.

The steps of the general analytical framework include planning the assessment strategy (problem formulation), identifying the sources of uncertainty, evaluating individual sources of uncertainty, evaluating the combined uncertainty, investigating influence and  refining the assessment (if needed) and reporting the uncertainty analysis.

 

Expert judgement plays a key role in uncertainty analysis, as in other aspects of scientific assessment. Assessors should be systematic in identifying sources of uncertainty, checking each part of their assessment to minimise the risk of overlooking important uncertainties. Uncertainty may be expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. It is not necessary or possible to quantify separately every individual source of uncertainty affecting an assessment. However, assessors should express in quantitative terms the combined effect of as many as possible of the identified sources of uncertainty. Practical approaches to facilitate this are described.

 

Uncertainty analysis should be conducted in a flexible, iterative manner, starting at a level appropriate to the assessment in hand and then refining the analysis as far as is needed or possible within the time available. Some steps may be reduced or omitted in emergency situations and in routine assessments with standardised provision for uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis and other methods for investigating influence are used to target refinement on those sources of uncertainty where it will contribute most.

 

The draft guidance document was published for public consultation and will be finally revised after the end of a 12 month trial period during which EFSA’s Panels and Units are applying the guidance to examples of scientific assessments in their sector of food and feed safety, animal and plant health.


Recipe writing with uncertain ingredients – communicating risk and scientific uncertainty in food safety
Anthony R. Hardy 1, Andrew D. M. Hart 2, Caroline Merten 1, Andrea Germini 1, Olaf Mosbach-Schulz 1, Rory Harrington 1, Cristina Da Cruz 1, Natalie von Götz 3, Laura Smillie 4, Julien Etienne 5, Anthony Smith 1
1 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 43126, Parma, Italy
2 FERA, YO41 1LZ, York, United Kingdom
3 ETH, 8093, Zürich, Switzerland
4 Rothamsted Research, AL5 2JQ, Harpenden, United Kingdom
5 ICF International, EC4M 5SB, London, United Kingdom

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is developing guidance on uncertainty in scientific assessments for its expert scientific panels, staff and partners in EU member states to apply in their work for EFSA. Risk communication is a core task for EFSA, which considers effective communication of uncertainties to all its stakeholders – including the general public – vital to its risk assessment role. Clear, mutually understood expressions of uncertainty as well as of risk are therefore essential. However, the literature is equivocal about the best methods for communicating scientific uncertainties and there is a lack of empirical evidence on the best approaches for reaching non-technical audiences. Consequently, EFSA commissioned target audience research to generate data that could be used to fill these gaps and form the basis of a structured approach to uncertainty communication at EFSA.

EFSA communicates the scientific uncertainties related to its assessments when relevant to the conclusions, but it has not developed a model that is applied holistically. How EFSA’s Scientific Panels report their uncertainty assessments is closely related, but the research goes further looking at how communication messages are understood by EFSA’s target audiences.

Different methods, approaches and tools for communicating scientific uncertainties to European and national decision-makers, stakeholders and the general public were tested in a first phase. Individual interviews followed by focus group exercises differentiated the level of scientific technicality in the communication messages on uncertainties intended for different target audiences. Participants read and evaluated uncertainty statements (including quantitative and qualitative expressions) then discussed matters of clarity, usefulness and perceptions, providing a rich and nuanced tapestry of reactions, as individuals and as a collective.

A second phase involving an online survey further tested preferences for uncertainty expressions, fine-tuned the study design and broadened the sample pool to multiple countries and languages while maintaining the same categories of target audiences.

The research results will be used to finalise EFSA guidance on this subject and to establish best practice at EFSA on communicating scientific uncertainties.

Tuesday, June 20th - Auditorium #3 - 13:30 - 15:00
Symposium - Pharmaceuticals in the environment
Pharmaceuticals in the environment : risk assessment, risk perception and pilot solutions
Benoit Roig 1, Silvia Luis 2, Carole Blanchard 3
1 UNIVERSITE NIMES, 30000, Nimes, France
2 Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), 1649-026, Lisboa, Portugal
3 Université Perpignan Via Domitia, 66860, Perpignan, France

Pharmaceutical products (PPs) in the environment represent an increasing concern for environmental scientists as well as regulatory institutions. Some PPs and their residues (including metabolites) are not removed during conventional biological treatment, enter the water supply via wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) and can also reach drinking waters. Much has been published concerning the occurrence, fate and behaviour of PPs, but risk assessment for the environment and for human health still remains weakly investigated.

According to the international literature, it appears that most of the up to now investigated pharmaceuticals do not pose an acute threat to the environment, but that a small number do, and that none appear likely to pose a significant threat to human health (via environmental exposure). These conclusions are supported by a recent and detailed human health risk assessment. However, this apparent certainty that there is no human health risk posed by the presence of human pharmaceuticals in the environment is not supported by deeper thinking. For example, the apparently reassuring risk assessments studies are based on potential risks to healthy adults: the more sensitive and hence vulnerable foetus, children, the elderly and the infirm were not considered. The real situation is that, currently, there are many more uncertainties than certainties, which leaves scientists, the public and the press still unconvinced that drinking water containing a tiny quantity of a pharmaceutical is completely harmless.

Consequently, in spite of the uncertainties in the real risk for animal and human populations, numerous initiatives have been launched to decrease the presence of PPs in the environment. They include actions at the industrial (green pharmacy), medical (sustainable prescription, healthcare establishments control, …), patient (prescription, awareness, ….) or environmental (effluent treatment, …) sphere as well as in the regulation.

This symposium proposes to present some of these initiatives, mixing both scientific and psychosocial studies.


Ecological and Human health risk of pharmaceutical products in the environment: present and future
Benoit Roig
UNIVERSITE NIMES, 30000, Nimes, France

The presence of pharmaceutical products (PPs) in the environment is no longer a new issue and is numerously documented. Whether the occurrence, fate and behavior are now relatively well characterized and unquestionable, the current main question concerns the potential risk of pharmaceutical products for the environment as well as for human.

For human health, there is a tendency to consider the risk as negligible, taking into account drinking water as principal way of exposure and the PPs concentrations (one million to one billion fold below the therapeutic dose). On the contrary, the environmental risk is real with some examples described in the literature such as fish feminization, birds damages, genotoxic effect on wildlife, …

However, both for human and environmental risk assessment, there are more uncertainties than certainties, in particular due to one hand the limited number of studies (in particular for human health) and on the other hand due to the lack of some data required for a robust risk calculation. Numerous parameters are not considered and end-points used in different studies are questionable.

This presentation aims to illustrate (1) the current knowledges concerning the ecological and human health risk of PPs in the environment and (2) the needs and trends in research for a better understanding of the risk of these molecules.


Pharmaceutical products in the environment: impact indicator for health care establishments
Audrey Courtier, Benoit Roig
UNIVERSITE NIMES, 30000, Nimes, France

Over the last few decades, the occurrence of pharmaceutical products (PPs)in the environment has become a worldwide issue of increasing environmental concern. They are of particular interest since some of these substances are produced and used in large quantities, and many of them may end up in the aquatic environment, where there are persistent or pseudo-persistent1, 2 and toxic to non-target organisms. They also have the potential for bioaccumulation in organisms of different trophic levels, becoming an important threat to wildlife and by the way a spelling trouble for drinking water industry.

Sources and pathways have been well identified: metabolic excretion from patient (wastewater and hospital effluents, septic tanks), industrial activity (industrial wastewater and waste), livestock activities (waste lagoons, manure application to soil), as well as indirectly by improper disposal, untreated sewage.

Risk assessment, for both animal and human is not yet conclusive (except for some substances) leading difficult for decision maker to build an adapted regulation. In spite of this lack, lot of projects have been launched to decrease the presence of PPs in the environment. Some of them addresses health care establishments (hospital, senior residences, ….) asking for the implementation of a treatment processes or a change in the medical practices. Such proposal is not well accepted because of the generated provisional costs.

In our work, we propose to develop an impact indicator allowing the establishment to monitor their activity and the produced wastes in term of pharmaceutical residues. Based on a multicriteria calculation (taking into account data on consumption, excretion, water volume, … ) this indicator aims to be consider as an alert system and a support for decision making in the management of the environmental risk of the healthcare activity. The indicator was developped from several french establishements.


Pharmaceutical residues in senior residences wastewaters: Risks, innovative analytical tools and sustainable treatment processes: Innovec’Eau project
Lucía Poggio 1, Carole Calas-Blanchard 2
1 Complutense University of Madrid, 28223, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Spain
2 Université de Perpignan, 66860, Perpignan, France

Nowadays water pollution poses a major challenge, both at economic and social levels. Although the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires the control of certain substances classified as "priority pollutants" in the European countries, monitoring programs have shown a persistent and generalized contamination of surface waters due to other compounds designated as “emerging contaminants”, that are often refractory to conventional wastewater treatments.

To improve the quality of the aquatic environment, the Innovec'EAU project aims to conduct a study of the wastewater discharges of establishments for elderly people, especially retirement homes, located in the Southwest of Europe (SUDOE territory) , and to implement pilot technologies to treat and monitor drugs residues.

 This project is part of a sustainable development strategy and it integrates environmental, sociological and economic issues.

These actions are facilitated with the engagement of institutions specialized in care for elderly people in the consortium as associated partners, more precisely SYNERPA (France), SCML (Portugal), L'Onada and Sant Joan de Deu (Spain), which are potential users of this technology.

Acknowledgement: The Innovec’EAU Project (SOE1/P1/F0173) is supported by Interreg SUDOE Programme through European Regional Development Funds (ERDF).

http://innovec-eau.univ-perp.fr/fr/menu/innovec-eau/accueil/


Presence, toxicity and risk of pharmaceuticals discharged from senior residences
Cristian Gomez 1, Teresa Sala 1, Victor Pueyo 1, Carlos Barata 1, Silvia Luis 2, Claire Joannis-Cassan 3, Gael Plantard 4, Carole Calas-Blanchard 5, Silvia Lacorte 1
1 IDAEA-CSIC, 08034, Barcelona, Spain
2 Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), 66666, Lisbon, Portugal
3 INP-ENSIACET, 31030, Toulouse, France
4 Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux, Energies Solaires CNRS, 66100, Perpignan, France
5 Laboratoire Biocapteurs, Analyses, Environnement, BAE-LBBM, 66860, Perpignan, France

In Europe, the phenomenon of aging and over-aging has led to societies where 15-20% of the population is over 65. Countries with aging populations have to increase the resources according to the demands of elderly people but it is also necessary to ensure environmental sustainability  and public health. The homes for the elderly are infrastructures that articulate diverse services in response to biopsychosocial needs and have become popular in most European countries. Senior residences  have a configuration of typically 50-150 individuals and provide lodging, meal services and health assistance. With a water consumption of 2000-5000 m3/month and an estimated daily release of around 2 kg of pharmaceuticals, the senior residences have become an important source of pollution of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Although sewage waters are treated in Wastewater Treatment Plants, many pharmaceuticals are not eliminated in conventional activated sludge treatments and are discharged to receiving waters, posing environmental risks. The objectives of the present study were to identify the toxicologically active pharmaceuticals originating from senior residences and to propose innovative analytical tools for their control and remediation. In this study, we have selected a few homes for the elderly in Portugal, France and Spain  and have prioritized the pharmaceuticals which can represent a risk to the environment according to their high consumption, low degradability and high toxicity. Main risk compounds were analgesic and antipyretic drugs such as paracetamol, ibuprofen, metamizole and acetylcysteine, antibiotics such as amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole, gabapentin and valproic acid for the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain, sedative and hypnotic compounds such as clomethiazole and pharmaceuticals for the treatment of diabetes (metformin). For these compounds, we have developed selective extraction and detection techniques for their monitoring and are implementing on-site remediation technologies based on an innovative hybrid process coupling biodegradation and solar photo-oxidation for their total elimination. Overall, this study aims at controlling the discharge of pharmaceuticals associated with senior residences and contributes to environmental health.

Acknowledgements

This study has been financed by the SUDOE program with the project Innovec’Eau (2016-2019) / Project SOE1/P1/F0173 Interreg SUDOE funded by FEDER: 1.177.875,64 €;  http://innovec-eau.univ-perp.fr. Personnel from the homes from the elderly are acknowledged for their assistance and guidance and for providing consumption data of pharmaceuticals.


Risk perception of pharmaceutical products in the environment in European countries.
Sílvia Luís 1, Maria Luísa Lima 1, Lucia Poggio 2, Juan Ignacio Aragones 2, Audrey Courtier 3, Benoit Roig 3
1 ISCTE-IUL, 1750-456, Lisboa, Portugal
2 Complutense University of Madrid, 28223, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Spain
3 UNIVERSITE NIMES, 30000, Nimes, France

The issue of pharmaceutical products (PPs) in the environment has gained relevance over the last decades. In many countries, trace amounts of a significant number of these compounds have been found in environmental waters, as well as, typically in smaller concentrations, in the drinking water supply. As such, this issue is potentially of both environmental and human health relevance and it is important to explore risk perception and communication in this area. For instance, the scientific knowledge on this area is relatively new, therefore the level of public and stakeholder awareness might be low. Furthermore, considering that the concentrations of PPs measured are typically very low, many stakeholders might not sure this poses a risk. In addition, there are numerous knowledge gaps on the different aspects of the risks posed by PPs in the environment that might difficult providing answers to the concerns that stakeholders might have, such as the potential efficacy of different activities that might reduce PPs (e.g. development of environmentally friendly pharmaceuticals; standardized regulation for the disposal of unused pharmaceuticals;  introduction of an ecolabel for environmentally friendly pharmaceuticals; promoting non-medical treatment and prevention). For last, local practices towards pharmaceutical legislation, prescription, intake and recycling might also influence risk perception on pharmaceuticals in the environment. For instance, in Sweden there is already available an environmental information and classification system that allows choosing between therapeutically equivalent compounds, therefore the level of awareness is expected to be relatively higher than in other countries. The goal of this communication is to present and compare risk perceptions from stakeholders of Central Europe (Germany and Hungary) and United Kingdom (Project PHARMAS) with stakeholders from Southwest Europe (Project Innovec'EAU - France, Spain, and Portugal) and to derive recommendations that might contribute to managing the risk of PPs in the environment.

Acknowledgement: The Innovec’EAU Project (SOE1/P1/F0173) is supported by Interreg SUDOE Programme through European Regional Development Funds (ERDF).
http://innovec-eau.univ-perp.fr/fr/menu/innovec-eau/accueil/
 

Tuesday, June 20th - Room #2 - 13:30 - 15:00
Poster Platform - Poster platform presentations
A multi-stakeholder approach to the establishment of guidelines for the management of the risk to human safety from falling trees.
John Watt 1, David Ball 1, Neville Fay 2
1 Centre for Decision Analysis and Risk Management (DARM), Middlesex University, UK, NW4 4BT, London, United Kingdom
2 Treework Environmental Practice, BS3 2BX, Bristol, United Kingdom

This paper considers a particular aspect of tree risk management, namely the risk to human lives from falling trees or parts of trees.  At the time that the work was carried out this risk had, at least anecdotally, acquired a level of concern among practitioners that it was leading to unnecessary removal of valuable trees as the result of a fear of litigation under health and safety legislation.  Initial research revealed that the overall risk was actually extremely low and there was very little apparent public concern, except perhaps locally in the immediate aftermath of a serious incident.  Arboriculturists and land managers were confused as to what might be considered reasonable by the courts and the regulator (who of course had no expertise in tree safety management).  Expert witnesses tended to focus on faults in the tree that had fallen and disputes about whether it was reasonable to expect that this should have been detected and dealt with.

There was therefore a need for clear and carefully considered guidelines and a stakeholder group (The National Tree Safety Group) was formed, which was a broad partnership of professional bodies, various groups representing landowners and managers with large tree holdings, and organisations with heritage or conservation interests.  It produced guidance, Common sense risk management of trees, which advocated a risk/benefit assessment and provided a number of illustrated case study examples.

This paper discusses its approach to a number of issues that emerged:

  1. Different stakeholders had very different approaches towards the issue of tree retention
  2. In a number of situations routine industry practice would not suggest inspection of some or all of the trees, where they were only infrequently accessed by people.This was felt to need clear evaluation to justify its reasonableness if an incident happened.
  3. Context was key – which allowed tree management to be structured towards retaining and enhancing the benefits identified for particular trees at particular sites, incorporating an appropriate consideration of the proximity of ‘targets’ (people and property).
  4. Many of the benefits were societal (or at least shared by many stakeholders in an area) while the duty of care lay with individuals, which could potentially exacerbate risk aversion.

Risk assessment after private housing development upon a former outdoor firing range: drafting a method through international experience
Jean David
Compagnie nationale des experts de justice en environnement, 92380, GARCHES, France

Everybody knows the process of brown field clean-up when (industrial) operation ends and before any other subsequent use. Quite different is the question of assessing hazards and damages (if any) in a case, first of its kind in France, where no technical nor regulatory frame exist up to now : urban housing upon a former outdoor firing range.

1. The case and its background 

Several families had bought private dwelling in a new private housing estate. That estate was located on the site of a former outdoor firing range. When discovering lead shots inside their gardens, several owners joined in filing a case against both city council (former owner) and property developer, for loss of enjoyment and fear of pollution.

2. Expert’s appreciation

2.1 French feedback and back ground

Front to lack of French experience in decommissioning outdoor firing range in order to allow private housing development and lack of regulatory frame - regulatory frame has been shaped for brownfields and industrial operators – experiences have been drawn from other countries (USA and Switzerland). Some experience have been noticed in France in a quite close, but widely different situation : shooting range inside an ammunition plant, and their feedback was useless.

2.2 Other international experiences

International references will rely upon USA and Switzerland

2.3 Redrafting the mission

What is at stake : complaints and first draft of judicial mission relying upon lead, arsenic, and antimony. But for all ammunitions – before 1960 – quicksilver was present in primers ; at the difference of lead pollution, found near the place of shots fall out, quicksilver is present near the shooting range. So, following expert’s proposal quick silver was added to the field of investigation and judicial mission extended upon expert proposal.

3. Looking for methods and references

A particular method is to be set up, under litigants cross examination, using both foreign experiences and national good practices: To encompass pollution sources as a whole; To assess helath hazards related to a permanent dwelling exposition, and to main sorts of pollution; To bring a best estimate of losses suffered by litigants.

4. Drafting an evidence seeking process with  analytical and process evidences

Presentation will describe how in such a case use of technique and processes admitted elsewhere will be transfered inside a French judicial case. A particular item will be dedicated to economy of the case.

 


Integrating the Relative Importance of Multiple Stakeholders’ Future Behavior and the Influence of Scenarios on Priorities in Risk Analysis
Ayedh Almutairi, Professor James Lambert
Center for Risk Management of Engineering System University Of Virginia, 22901, Charlottesville, United States

Decisions that involve multiple stakeholders, who have different interests and backgrounds, are characterized by complexity, interdependency, interconnectedness, and uncertainty. The success of many decision frameworks that involve multiple stakeholders depends heavily on the ability of stakeholders to provide preferences and tradeoffs for the investigated issue. Recent developments in risk assessment and risk management have addressed priority setting for systems that involve multiple stakeholders, multiple objectives, and uncertainty in many scientific fields, such as climate change, economy, social science, technology, and other fields. However, they fail to address the future influence of the relative importance assigned to each stakeholder in the priority setting.  Furthermore, a certain assumption, such as the equal importance of the multiple stakeholders, is insufficient for addressing the complexities of systems. This study addresses the need to extend the multiple stakeholders scenario-based preferences methodology to account for the following needed research components. First, it will integrate the relative importance of multiple stakeholders in a scenario-based preferences model. Moreover, the weight of the influence of each stakeholder in the priority setting process will be based on the relative importance of that stakeholder. Thus, a stakeholder with a high level of power and interest will have a high level of influence in the priority setting. Second, it will develop a resilience analytics approach for the scenario-based approach that supports strategic planning after the introduction of the relative importance of multiple stakeholders. The outcomes from the resilience analysis will prevent the decision maker from considering a scenario in the priority setting to be a disruptive scenario if the stakeholder has low relative importance among other stakeholders. To demonstrate the technical methodology of this study, there will be a case study on integrating the effect of the relative importance of multiple stakeholders’ preferences with the influence of scenarios on priorities in system resilience for a port system. 


The risk embedded in the linkage of mortgages
Yaffa Machnes
Bar-Ilan University, 52900, Ramat Gan, Israel

In the first 50 years of Israel's existence, most financial transactions were linked to the Consumer Price Index, since the nascent economy suffered from chronic inflation. This trend has changed in the last ten years, along with the low inflation rate. Currently, most loans are linked to the fluctuating interest rate. In May 2011, the Supervisor of Banks, from the Central Bank, the Bank of Israel, imposed controls on the mortgage system by limiting the percentage of the mortgage linked to the Inter Bank rate to one third of the debt. This regulation can be explained by the difference in attitudes toward risk estimates on the part of the Bank of Israel as compared to debtors. This paper discusses classical measures of risk such as standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis that are often implemented by debtors, and the value at risk (VAR) estimates that were used by the Supervisor of Banks. These measures account for the new regulation imposed on mortgage banks


Regional Resilience as a Functional of Infrastructures Operational Risk  
Sviatoslav Timashev
 Sci.& Engng Center "Reliability and Safety of Large Systems and Machines" UB RAS( Yekaterinburg, Russia), 620049, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Ural Federal University ( Yekaterinburg, Russia), 620019, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Old Dominion University  Norfolk, VA USA, 22044, Norfolk, United States

            

In this paper the regional and infrastructure resilience are defined strictly in conditional probabilistic terms, as all the parameters which describe resilience quantitatively, are random. The conditionality of the probabilities is due to the time of analysis, financial, social and other restrictions for which the resilience is assessed. This concept flows out as a natural extention of the monitoring system designed for industrial systems [1-7].

Resilience is considered as a probability vector, which components include the physical and spatial resilience, as well as functional, organizational and social resilience. All these resiliencies can be parsed into partial resiliencies as related to different aspects of the considered type of resilience. The physical and spatial  resilience of a system of critical infrastructures is defined through its reliability and operational risk.The latter, in its own right, depends on the quality of its diagnostics, monitoring and maintenance subsytems.Hence, resilience is a complex factor which fuses such characteristcics of a system as reliabiklity, longevity, availability, maintenance, safety, risk,and givernance.

The paper describes the multidisciplinary and multifaceted approach to regional critical and strategic infrastructures of different nature, using the above novel concept. It shows how to use the concept of quantitative resilience in design, operation and mitigation of the consequences of an industrial (main oil pipeline) or Nature (Arctic) disaster, and how to assess and manage regional resilience/risk by managing  resilience/risk/reliability of the system of systems of  critical infrastructures. A methodology is proposed to study the (semi)quantitative dependence/correlation between the reliability/safety levels of interdependent infrastructures and regional resilience. The super urgent problem is formulated  on how to connect the physical and spatial (core) resiliencies with the functional, organizational and social resiliencies.

Initial results of an interdisciplinary project on developing a methodology of regional risk management via risk governance of critical infrastructure systems systems are presented, using some unified criteria (such as life expectancy, entropy). which permit convoluting a multidimensional problem into a single dimension problem.[2-7].

Results of the research may be useful to the regional and municipal level decision makers (DMs) [1-2] who make decisions related to optimal distribution of budgets, taking into account long term sustainable growth of entities under their jurisdiction. They will also be able to monitor how their decisions influence the quality of life / level of happiness of their constituents [3].

 


The Effect of Economic Sanctions on Domestic Production and Trade of Sanctioned Goods
Misak Avetisyan 1, David Lektzian 2
1 Department of Economics, Texas Tech University, 79409, Lubbock, United States
2 Department of Political Science, Texas Tech University, 79409, Lubbock, United States

It is well established that free trade generates larger gains. However, various forms of export control such as tariffs, quotas, taxes, etc. applied by developed and developing countries may substantially reduce gains from international trade. In this paper we apply a unique methodological refinement of the computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach to understand the effect of various types and levels of international sanctions on the severity and dissipation of economic losses over time.

For this purpose, we estimate the direct and indirect effects of differing types and levels of sanctions on the export of restricted goods in targeted economies and the use of international transport using the modified version of the dynamic Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model of global trade. We introduce the substitution between different modes of transport into the dynamic version of the GTAP model using the elasticities and approach developed by Avetisyan et al. (2017)1. The modal substitution elasticities ranging from of 0.9 to 2.8 generate significant response to changes in the relative price of different modes of goods transport.

Economic sanctions are typically designed by sender countries in a way that the targeted country suffers greater losses than the sender. Reducing or eliminating certain goods from entering the sanctioned country’s market makes them relatively expensive, and spurs the import of such goods from the target’s other trading partners. These alternative markets may be necessary to ensure the supply of goods, even if they are inefficient when compared to pre-existing patterns of trade with the sanctioning country. Also, the sanctioned goods typically become cheaper in sending countries due to increased domestic supply. However, while sanction senders are typically advantaged in the short run, the long run negative impacts of international sanctions on targeted countries may dissipate and undermine the intended effects in the targeted economy over time. These effects are likely to occur due to adjustment to sanctions in the targeted country, such as increased domestic production of targeted goods and trade substitution with other trading partners.

1Avetisyan, M., Hertel, T., 2017. Impacts of Trade Facilitation on Modal Choice in International Trade. Working Paper, Texas Tech University.


Citizens’ Support for Drinking Water Risk Management. Local Municipalities and Collective Action in Swedish Water Governance.
Anna Bendz 1, Sverker Jagers 1, Simon Matti 2
1 University of Gothenburg, 40530, Gothenburg, Sweden
2 Luleå University of Technology, 97187, Luleå, Sweden

Access to safe drinking water and a resilient water system is one of the most important preconditions for a well-functioning society. A lack of clean water constitutes a threat to peoples’ health and the possibility for countries to prosper. One source to problems is scarcity of water, but even where there is no scarcity it is necessary to prevent and manage risks. For example, the consequences of climate change such as flooding or bacteria in the water sources has been identified as a major hazard as well as inferior infra-structure or poor maintenance. Most risks are transboundary, meaning that they are not limited to a jurisdictional or geographical area, but instead transgress boundaries. In order to manage risks, it is therefore necessary that the decision making entities (often local governments) are willing to engage in collective action instead of acting out of self-interest. This may for example mean that municipalities support each other with funding or competence in promoting the common good. An important prerequisite for collective action is that measures are seen as legitimate by the citizens; if not, they may be less willing to contribute with financing. Our previous research show that citizens are perceived by decision makers as uninterested and not very knowledgeable when it comes to drinking water, which is considered problematic in order to generate support for necessary measures. The aim of this study is to investigate if and in that case how citizens’ support for drinking water risk management is conditioned by information concerning risks. We use the case study of the Göta River water system in Sweden, that serves as drinking water supply for 700.000 people in several local municipalities. This water system provides a paradigmatic case of transboundary risk. We use an innovative method consisting of web survey experiments in order to frame drinking water risks in different ways: How is citizens’ support and willingness to financial contribution affected by information concerning existing risks? How is willingness affected by information concerning the varying capabilities of local municipalities to handle risks? In case of contamination of the water in upstream municipalities, downstream municipalities are affected which may make it necessary to support upstream municipalities in order to prevent risks and promote the common good. Is this kind of collective action supported by citizens and does it vary depending on residency? The study systematically compares how citizens respond in upstream and downstream municipalities


Collaboration Exercise in a Military Context - Examining the Structure and Learning of an Air Operation Exercise for Cadets
Trygve Steiro 1, 2, Bjørn Eidsvåg 3
1 NTNU, 7465, Trondheim, Norway
2 Defence College of Norway, 0015, Oslo, Norway
3 Norwegian Defence University College, 0015, Oslo, Norway

Modern air forces can be termed as high risk organizations even in peace time in the taxonomy of Charles Perrow (Perrow, 1999). The military context put a lot of pressure on the people especially in the sharp end of operations. The Norwegian Air Force Academy of Norway put a lot of resources in the education of cadets. The curricula is based on a mix of theory, practice and reflection (Steiro & Firing, 2009). The challenge is to get an appropriate mix of these factors and but it in a relevant context. The exercise is inspired by a Human Right concept of the Air Force Academy in Italy, where an air operation is simulated and cadets from different nations are challenged in San Remo to provide human rights answer to commanders in an air operation. The Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy scaffolded on the concept and created an own exercise for their cadets in Norway. The Norwegian version is based on joint international air operation to provide a nation from attacking group of citizens (UNAPO- United Nations Air Protecion Operation). The exercise is played out under a United Nations umbrella. However, points made in the exercise and expressed in this article must not be seen as the opinion of the United Nations. The exercise demand from the cadets to operate on paper in a complex environment, demanding heterogeneous competence and involving ethical consideration. The UNAPO exercise can therefore be seen as an example of Bennis and O´Toole (2005) suggestion for management training. The exercise is lasting for full days and ending in a wrap up and lessons learned on day five.

The objective of this paper is to investigate on the structure for learning and the learning outcome. The methods applied are observation of the exercise. In addition, a questionnaire was handed out to the cadets on the morning of day five in order to collect data and also, secondary as an input for further reflection (n=25). The questionnaire is taken from Berlin and Carlström (2015) focusing on:

  • Collaboration
  • Learning
  • Usefulness

In addition, some questions from Torgersen and Steiro (2013). The article will present the exercise in detail and assess the learning outcome. It will link the learning outcome to relevant operations. It will also argue that such an exercise plays a valuable role in meeting demands for training managers (Bennis and O´Toole (2005). The article will not only document effects, but also look into means for improvement of the structure of the exercise and the learning output.

Tuesday, June 20th - Foyer - 13:30 - 15:00
Symposium - Tackling deep uncertainty: flood, drought & coastal risks
Tackling deep uncertainty in the long-term management of flood, drought and coastal risks
Suraje Dessai
University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom

Adapting societies to climate variability and change is one of the greatest challenges the world faces. However, deep uncertainty about future socio-economic and climatic changes and their associated impacts makes it difficult to identify adaptation requirements and strategies. Nevertheless, adaptation planning is important to avoid potentially dangerous maladaptation, minimize negative consequences and maximise opportunities of a changing climate. In the absence of perfect foresight or reliable information about probabilities of different outcomes due to climate change, established statistical and optimization techniques are not helpful for informing decisions. Uncertainty in climatic conditions has traditionally received little attention in decision-making, but it is so large in the future that traditional approaches to infrastructure design for long term assets and investments is inadequate. In such situations, a growing body of literature indicates that Robust Decision Making (RDM) approaches or Decision Making Under Uncertainty (DMUU) approaches provide value by helping identify individual or portfolios of adaptation strategies that work reasonably well across large ranges of uncertain future conditions. There is a family of approaches incorporated within RDM or DMUU including, but not limited to, exploratory modelling, information-gap decision theory, decision scaling and dynamic adaptive pathways; they all aim to address uncertainty/severe uncertainty/deep uncertainty in future conditions. This session provides examples of these types of approaches applied to flood risk management, water resources (drought) and coastal risks.


Qualitative and quantitative approaches to identify robust water management strategies under future climatic and socio-economic uncertainty
Ajay Bhave 1, Suraje Dessai 1, Declan Conway 2, David Stainforth 2
1 University of Leeds, LS6 4BT, Leeds, United Kingdom
2 London School of Economics and Political Science, WC2A 2AE, London, United Kingdom

Uncertainty about the regional impacts of climate change and rapidly changing socio-economic conditions make long-term planning of water resources problematic. Robust Decision Making (RDM) approaches seek to identify strategies that work reasonably well across large ranges of uncertain future conditions. We develop qualitative and quantitative RDM approaches to identify robust water management strategies (e.g. waste water recycling, micro-irrigation, river water transfer, more extraction for cities) against future climatic and socio-economic uncertainty. We apply these approaches to the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka (population ~23 million) in India.

We developed climate narratives of the plausible future evolutions of the Indian Summer Monsoon through a structured expert elicitation. We also developed socio-economic narratives to reflect potential future changes in urban and agricultural water demand. In the qualitative RDM approach, the first stakeholder workshop helped elicit key vulnerabilities, water resources adaptation options and performance criteria for evaluating options. In the second workshop, stakeholders constructed adaptation pathways by sequencing options till 2050. In the quantitative RDM approach, a Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model was driven by quantitative data coherent with the climatic and socio-economic narratives to develop plausible scenarios of future water availability and demand. Individual adaptation options and adaptation pathways were applied across scenarios to assess their robustness.

In this predominantly agricultural basin, we find that options which address agricultural water demand, such as micro-irrigation and agricultural water pricing reduce the pressure on water resources. Urban water demand options are also important for the rapidly expanding cities of Bangalore and Mysore. Agricultural water demand options demonstrate ability to satisfy legal instream flow requirements for downstream riparian states across a larger range of scenarios, indicating robustness. Adaptation pathways demonstrate differential value across scenarios, depending on timing and sequencing of options, thus illustrating the need to design them carefully. We suggest that iteratively combining qualitative and quantitative RDM approaches can help plan for a changing climate under conditions of deep uncertainty.


An exploratory model in support to the long-term management of large-scale flood risk systems
Alessio Ciullo 1, 2, Frans Klijn 1, 2, Karin De Bruijn 1, Jan Kwakkel 2, Marjolijn Haasnoot 1, 2
1 Deltares, 2600MH, Delft, Netherlands
2 Delft University of Technology, 2600AA, Delft, Netherlands

Uncertainty characterizes a flood risk system by definition: from forecasting meteorological and hydrological conditions to predicting socio-economic development. Uncertain is also the way river-dike interactions take place (e.g. upstream-downstream hydrodynamic interactions), whose understanding and evaluation is of paramount importance in large-scale flood risk management. This latter, system-related uncertainties manifest in many ways: What will be the hydraulic load at one location, given a breach at a location upstream? Which dikes will fail? And when? How big will the breach extension be? These questions have no answer yet. Nevertheless, policy makers are required to implement flood risk management plans over large areas and there is very little knowledge about how uncertainties in system behavior affect decisions. Furthermore, the overall system uncertainty is exacerbated by the expected climate change and socio-economic development.

 

This is what policy analysts refer to as a deeply uncertain problem: a problem where analysts struggle to provide a proper and unique model formulation to describe the interaction among the model’s variables, and have no or limited knowledge about the probability distribution of the uncertainties involved.

 

The current work introduces an exploratory model for the study of large-scale flood risk systems with the aim of developing long-term flood risk management strategies. The model will serve stakeholders and policy makers in exploring trade-offs among outcomes given different system configurations, and will foster discussion and learning about system performance in the face of deeply uncertain futures. To this end, the model provides a spatially distributed characterisation of flood risk by explicitly focusing on upstream - downstream interactions. The performance of each management strategy is assessed with respect to a heterogeneous set of performance indicators, belonging to both the economic and social domains. In particular, cost-benefit indicators, which are commonly used in flood risk management studies, will be used next to indicators related to equity and casualties.

 

The model will help answering three main research questions: (1) Given the huge system uncertainty, how can policy makers develop robust long-term flood risk management plans? (2) Would the adoption of a system approach change current flood risk management policies? (3) How to best analyze trade-offs emerging from conflicting stakeholder’s values and priorities?

 

Future research will focus on the application of the proposed modelling framework on two case studies: the lower branch of the Rhine River (from Bonn, Germany to the river Delta in The Netherlands) and the Po River (Italy).


The role of participatory action-research approaches in long-term climate change planning: two pilot studies
ines campos, Gil Penha-Lopes, Filipe Moreira Alves
Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (CE3C) University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, 1600-313, Lisbon, Portugal

This presentation will draw from two pilot cases of climate change adaptation in Portugal coastal regions, namely the coast of Ílhavo and Vagos municipalities, and Cascais municipality – where transdisciplinary action-research projects were implemented.

At the beginning of the case study research, the two pilots were in different stages in their adaptation process: while in Ílhavo and Vagos there was no strategy or plan to deal with climate change impacts, Cascais had already a climate change strategy. Yet, in both cases the adaptation process was accelerated after the participatory planning experiences, which were co-implemented by a group of researchers and local stakeholders. There was clearly a multiplication effect in the use of inclusive and participatory designs. In both pilot cases, the interactive research led to other spin-off research projects focused on implementing specific actions for increasing local climate resilience.

In the Ílhavo and Vagos case study an innovative methodology for long-term planning was developed. The methodology included a Scenario Workshop and the co-design of climate change Dynamic Adaptation Pathways. The methodology was called SWAP. As a result of the SWAP, stakeholders from the two neighbor municipalities reached a consensus on the local coastal protection and adaptation measures needed and were able to deal with uncertainty. Conversely, the goal of the Cascais pilot study was to assess the municipality’s climate change strategic plan and prioritize adaptation measures. Both quantitative (i.e. two surveys, and a Cost-Benefit Analysis of measures) and qualitative methods (nine participatory workshops) were applied in Cascais by a group of researchers and local stakeholders.

The presentation will compare these two transdisciplinary action-research projects and the impact of the different methods used in: (i) co-developing shared visions for the future, (2) dealing with uncertainty in long-term planning, (3) changing local planning cultures and (4) producing a roadmap for implementing climate change adaptation plans.

Tuesday, June 20th - Room #1 - 13:30 - 15:00
Symposium - Stakeholders views of risk in nanotechnologies
Stakeholders’ views of risk in nanotechnologies
Monica Lindh de Montoya
School of Global Studies (SGS), 40530, Gothenburg, Sweden

For the last three decades nanotechnology has emerged as an increasingly important scientific frontier that offers a realm of new possiblities for innovation. The ability to manipulate particles on the nanoscale opens up the opportunity to develop advanced medical diagnostics, improved construction materials, better sensors, and more efficient batteries - to name only a very few of the prospective applications. Yet the promise which nanotechnology holds also subjects us to new risks which are to a large degree still unknown, as these materials are so recent and so novel in design. Risks may lie in the laboratories where nanomaterials are developed, but also on production sites, in their use from exposure or wear and tear, and also during their disposal and eventual reintegration into the material lifecycle.

Nanoparticles act differently than these chemicals do in bulk or molecular form, something that is part of their appeal but which also makes it difficult to determine their eventual toxicity. Because they can take so many forms and be used in a multitude of ways, assessing and testing the risks they may present is complex and time-consuming. Nonetheless, consumer products that incorporate nanoparticles are proliferating on the market, making it imperative that nanomaterials be examined and regulated, for the sake of both consumer confidence and protection. 

In this symposium we examine how various stakeholders in nanotechnology reason about the risks these innovative materials may contain. One paper explores the perspectives of the scientists that work with graphene -  a miracle materials expected to generate numerous valuable new applications - while another paper examines the views of innovation advisors who work on the commercialization of some of the discoveries coming out of university laboratories. Finally, a third paper analyses the results of a web questionnaire concerning the risks and benefits of nanotechnology that was administered to an array of expert stakeholders from the field of nanotechnology.


Risk and new materials: innovation advisors’ perspectives on risk in nanotech innovation
Monica Lindh de Montoya
School of Global Studies, 40530, Gothenburg, Sweden

Nanotechnology innovation is increasing as scientists and entrepreneurs realize the possibilities offered by the ability to manipulate particles on the nanoscale. Gradually - as discoveries made in university cleanrooms and laboratories begin to take shape as ideas for commercial products - new materials, sensors, lasers, batteries and medical diagnostics begin to reach the marketplace. The advisors that work in the innovation offices attached to the major Swedish universities have an important role in this process, as they advise scientist/entrepreneurs on how to best develop their ideas and how to find and negotiate with prospective customers and partners, or how to license their concepts. Part of their work with the prospective entrepreneurs is to assess the risk involved with each project, and to examine the innovation’s sustainability.

Assessing how a new product will affect humans and the environment is a part of such an assessment. However, little is known about how the nanoparticles in new products interact with the environment, as these particles are so novel and react differently than the materials do in bulk form. Discussions of the possible risks associated with nanotechnological products are often present in the media, and may affect the marketability of a product. While work in the laboratories springs ahead bringing startling new possibilities, regulation is slower, and lags behind, sometimes due to a lack of robust data. Thus the risk assessments made in the sphere of nanotech innovation are therefore frequently tentative: there may be no direct evidence, but only hypotheses regarding how certain particles will act, or how they may affect humans in the long term. And as the advisors themselves come from different scientific backgrounds, they have varied ideas about how to deal with possible risks.

Based upon interviews carried out in five Swedish universities, this paper will discuss how innovation advisors envisage the possible risks inherent in nanotechnological innovations, and where they believe potential dangers may lie. It also explores who they believe should shoulder the task of avoiding or mitigating risk, and where the regulatory responsibility lies.


Expert stakeholders’ understandings of risks and benefits of nanomaterials: A Swedish study
Åsa Boholm 1, Simon Larsson 2
1 University of Gothenburg, School of Global Studies, 41314, Gothenburg, Sweden
2 University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Research Institute, 40530, Gothenburg, Sweden

Nanotechnology innovation is growing fast on a global scale. Areas of application and use include electronics, food and food packaging, textiles, health care, drugs, diagnostics, coatings, as well as cosmetics. Nanoparticles and nanomaterials might negatively impact the environment and public health in many ways. Risks to the environment and to humans is a growing concern in society and engage regulators, industry, consumers, NGOs, the media, and scientific experts.  Since toxicity of chemicals at nanoscale is not predictable from the toxicity of the same material in bulk or molecular form, risk assessment of nanomaterials is surrounded by considerable uncertainty. Still, regulatory bodies ask for robust scientific risk assessment that can serve as decision support for policy and steering. Public concern about risks of nanomaterials is generally low, except for some specific issues such as sun screens, and antibacterial silver in clothes. The establishment of trustworthy, legitimate and efficient governance frame-works for the regulation of nanomaterials will demand inter-institutional and inter-organizational collaboration of a broad range of societal actors. Hence,  concerns about nanotechnology engage expert stakeholders representing many different organisations.

This study explores the views of Swedish expert stakeholders’ on a number of issues and challenges regarding nanotechnology innovation. A web based questionnaire has been administered to some 250 expert stakeholders representing regulatory bodies, industry, funding agencies, NGOs (for example industry associations, consumer organisations, environmental organisations, and trade unions). The study explores stakeholders’ perceptions of risks and benefits of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, also in relation to area of application. It also investigates ,stakeholder’s preferences for, and ideas about, what regulatory tools are appropriate for nanomaterials, as well as their more general ideas about need for public involvement and/or scientific knowledge in regulatory processes. The aim of the study is to gain knowledge about the views of different stakeholders in the Swedish society who engage in issues concerning nanotechnology. And to explore similarities and differences between categories of actors. The study contributes to a wider discussion on how risk perception correlates with assumed benefits and how preferences for regulation varies with perceived risk. In line with previous research we predict that the perception of risk and benefits depend on area of application and area and type of expertise. Furthermore, we expect to find that views on regulation vary in correlation to understanding of benefits and risks.


From carbon nanotubes to graphene – Perception of risk among nanoscientists
Mikael Johansson
Gothenburg Reserch Institute - School of Business, Economics and Law. Gothenburg University, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden

Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules made out of carbon.  In the late 1990s they became one of the new revolutionary materials of the nanotech hype. Carbon nanotubes were believed to replace silicon in transistors and that they could be used to build an elevator into space.  None of the predictions came true. In recent years the nano hype has faded and a new material, graphene, is now presented as the new revolutionary material. In laypersons term graphene is a carpet made out of carbon, one atom layer thick. Graphene is already used in touch-screens and transistors and future uses might be artificial limbs, bendable touchscreens, and stronger building materials. 

What is not so well know is that graphene is manufactured in a similar manner to carbon nanotubes, using the same machines, by researchers who often previously worked with carbon nanotubes. From the scientists perspective graphene is basically carbon nanotubes cut and rolled out into a carpet.

This paper explores how scientists who worked with carbon nanotubes and now work with graphene perceive risks associated with the two materials. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork at Chalmers Technical University in Gothenburg between 2003-2004 and 2015-2016.

In short, the scientists do not perceive risks with carbon nanotubes and graphene. If there are any risks they are in the manufacturing phase as carbon nanotubes and flakes of graphene can be inhaled and cause health issues. But it is not something discussed or reflected upon by most nanoscientists. A common reply among the scientists why carbon nanotubes and graphene are safe is because it consists of carbon and that they are familiar with the material. The nanoscientists in the study have a positive understanding of the materials they work with which influences their understanding of carbon nanotubes and graphene as safe.  From the scientists perspective what is new with carbon nanotubes and graphene is not the material, which are carbon atoms, but the engineering thereof. In the same sense as clay engineered into bricks are safe are carbon atoms engineered into tubes and carpets safe.

Tuesday, June 20th - Auditorium #3 - 15:30 - 16:30
Parallel Sessions - Risk and uncertainty communication I
Evaluating a risk communication process for seismic risk protection: methodological challenges
Delta Silva, Alvaro Pereira, Ricardo Bernardo, Marta Vicente
Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, 1700-066, Lisbon, Portugal

This communication aims at discussing the methodological challenges posed when there is interest in evaluating the impacts of risk communication processes. Such discussion will stand on a pilot experience assessment of a seismic risk protection communication held in two secondary schools of Lisbon (Portugal), under the EU KnowRISK project (Know your city, Reduce your seismic risk through non-structural elements).

The efficacy of education for seismic safety is often inhibited by an incomplete understanding of the process by which individuals decide to protect themselves from harm (Becker et al. 2012). Both risk communication program and impact assessment procedure were designed taking into account how social science describes the process by which individuals decide to act protectively. The Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) by Weinstein and colleagues (1988; 2008), with insights coming from other approaches (Becker et al., 2012, 2013; Lindell et al., 2012), was a central theoretical basis.

Most methodological challenges posed were in the orbit of two basic questions: ‘what to assess?’ and ‘how to assess?’. Answering to the first-mentioned question implied to have into account the risk communication program, clarifying which cognitive and behavioral changes were realistically expectable in the context of an earthquake dormant society as is the case of Lisbon. Concerning the second-mentioned question, the impact assessment of risk communication procedure stood in a quasi-experimental research design, based on a survey conducted before and after the intervention at schools. This survey procedure was complemented a qualitative approach, based on the analysis of written materials and focus groups, in order to complement the limitations of quantitative approaches.

Both results and ‘lessons learned’ of the multi-method approach, adopted to assess the impacts of KnowRISK intervention, will be presented and discussed.  

 


Empowering youngsters for seismic risk reduction through participatory maquette modeling
Marta Vicente 1, Delta Silva 1, Alvaro Pereira 1, Ricardo Bernardo 1, Mónica Ferreira 2
1 Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, 1700-066, Lisbon, Portugal
2 Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001, Lisbon, Portugal

Communicating science within disaster risk reduction using methods that encourage two-way dialogue between scientists and laypersons is a challenging task. This communication aims at presenting a methodological strategy of communicating risk and non-structural seismic protection measures through participatory maquette modelling. Such methodological strategy is part of a pilot experience of risk communication in two Lisbon schools (Portugal) under the EU project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements).

The efficacy of education for seismic safety is often inhibited by an incomplete understanding of the process by which individuals decide to protect themselves from harm (Becker et al. 2012). Becker et. al (in ibid) conceive such process has composed by a series of stages, respectively: knowledge and awareness, thinking and talking, understand the consequences, develop skills. The above-mentioned pilot experience of risk communication was designed in order to trigger the cognitive process underlying behavioral change. Lisbon is a dormant society as far as it concerns to earthquake risk. Given this, risk communication was firstly designed to generate awareness and knowledge among target-groups. Thinking and talking, jointly with the development of skills, was stimulated through the creation of “game show” around seismic risk issue and a set of sessions around the building of a maquette. This activity was inspired on participatory mapping methodologies (Cadag, 2012). It functioned as a facilitator of the interpretation and understanding of non-structural seismic vulnerabilities and alternatives of protection.


From a passive to an active approach in risk communication. The effects of behavioral training on self-protectiveness of children.
Milou Kievik 1, Ellen Giebels 2
1 Saxion University of Applied Sciences, 7513 AB, Enschede, Netherlands
2 University of Twente, 7522 NB, Enschede, Netherlands

In our risky world, research on self-protectiveness is receiving increasingly scholarly attention (Rickard et al., 2014). The government is stressing the importance of citizens’ responsibility in taking self-protective measures, since early threat detection by those at risk in times of crisis might give them important addition time. In order to increase citizen self-protectiveness adequate risk communication proves to be crucial, but difficult (Kievik et al., 2012).

Recent studies indicate that risk communication can no longer be seen as a passive, one-way process in which citizens are informed using standard-passive-techniques (e.g. Kinateder et al., 2013). During stressful events declarative knowledge (facts) must be remembered and then transferred into action. However, during such events, declarative memory may not be activated as easily as procedural knowledge (or knowing how to perform a certain task (Burke & Hutchins, 2007)). This stresses the importance of increasing procedural knowledge, which can we acquired through highly-engaging-measures such as behavioral training.

In this study, we hypothesize that respondents who receive a behavioral training (active information-processing) are more likely to engage in self-protective behaviors and have a more positive attitude towards adequate risk behaviors than merely informed (passive information-processing) or uninformed respondents.

We conducted our experiment in the Risk Factory – a state-of-the-art safety education center in which children experience real-life-risks first hand and learn how to deal with dangerous situations (Brandweer Twente, 2016). A total of 365 children (age 9-13) participated in the study. An informed consent from the parents was received. All children were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (behavioral training vs. information only vs. no information). The children assigned to the behavioral-training condition (n = 113) visited the Risk Factory.  They received information about two safety risks (fire-safety and emergency-situations)  and corresponding self-protective behaviors. Subsequently, they were asked to actively practice these behaviors. The information-only condition (n = 112) only passively received the same information. The no-information condition (n = 140) received no information. A post-test was conducted among all respondents by means of a questionnaire, measuring levels of self-protectiveness as well as levels of risk perception, efficacy-beliefs and social norms as is in line with previous research on predictors of self-protectiveness (e.g. Witte, 1992).

Our results indicate that a behavioral training leads to significantly higher levels of self-protectiveness and more positive attitudes towards adequate risk behaviors than passive approaches of risk communication. The results will be discussed in more detail at the conference.


The effect of icon arrays and analogies in risk communication among adolescents
Kirill Gavrilov 1, 3, Aigul Mavletova 1, 2, Tatiana Holmogorova 1
1 Department of Sociology, National Research University Higher School of Economics, 101000, Moscow, Russia
2 Laboratory for Comparative Social Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics, 101000, Moscow, Russia
3 Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117218, Moscow, Russia

Previous research showed that icon arrays and analogies improved understanding of medical risks among adults (Cosmides & Tooby 1996; Fagerlin et al. 2005; Galesic et al. 2009; Galesic & Garcia-Retamero 2013) and among children (Multmeier 2012; Ulph et al. 2009). 
In our studies we measured the effect of icon arrays and analogies on the understanding of risk information among adolescents 11-15 years of age. Though there are a number of experimental studies among adults and some studies among younger children (6-11 years of age), there are almost no experimental studies among adolescents. We suggested that icon arrays and analogies would increase the accuracy of understanding risk as well as risk comparison among adolescents. We conducted two experimental studies. 
In Experiment 1 among 213 participants we tested if icon arrays produced a higher accuracy in easy risk calculation tasks and decreased the ratio-bias effect. In addition, we measured if analogies were helpful for understanding some medical information. The icon arrays questions were adapted from (Galesic et al. 2009). There were two distinct icon arrays for treated and untreated people. There were four vignettes with two treatment risk reduction levels (20% and 60%) and two levels of the denominator size (100 and 1,000). The tasks with analogies were adapted from (Galesic & Garcia-Retamero 2013) and (Schwartz et al. 1997). There were two easy and two difficult medical problems. E.g. in easy medical problems respondents were expected to evaluate what individuals should first of all know if they get positive results from medical screenings.
In Experiment 2 among 157 participants we tested if icon arrays produced a higher accuracy in difficult tasks such as tradeoff and Bayesian problems. The tradeoff tasks were adapted from (Waters et al., 2006) and (Hawley et al. 2008). Respondents were expected to calculate the risk of getting two viruses after treatments and evaluate if the total risk of getting viruses after treatment was increased, decreased or had not changed compared to the total risk before treatment. The Bayesian task was adapted from (Brase 2009).
Overall, in both experiments icon arrays produced better understanding of risk information and more accurate risk comparison. The effects varied depending on the task difficulty and risk literacy of the participants. Icon arrays were more helpful for the low numeracy adolescents in complex tradeoff problems. Analogies were helpful for high literacy adolescent children.

Tuesday, June 20th - Room #1 - 15:30 - 16:30
Parallel Sessions - Risk perception and risk communication
The crumb rubber crisis: Changes in public perceptions of risk in the Netherlands
Marion de Vries 1, 2, Liesbeth Claassen 1, 2, Marcel Mennen 1, Aura Timen 1, Margreet te Wierik 1, Danielle Timmermans 1, 2
1 Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA, Bilthoven, Netherlands
2 Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, 1007MB, Amsterdam, Netherlands

We investigated how the public's perceptions of risk have evolved during a recent crisis concerning health risks of crumb rubber in the Netherlands. Crumb rubber (or rubber granulate) is used as infill of about 1600 artificial turf sport fields in the Netherlands. In October 2016, a Dutch television programme launched an episode in which crumb rubber was framed as a possibly severe health risk for people playing sports on artificial fields, and in special for children. In the weeks that followed, other media in the Netherlands reported on the chemicals in crumb rubber and the (in the television programme) suggested association between crumb rubber and developing cancer. Consequently, a relative high societal commotion arose including some immediate protective measures that were taken by sport clubs and municipalities. The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) was asked to conduct a study to provide clarity about the health risks of crumb rubber before the end of 2016. After extensive research, the RIVM concluded that the health risk by exposure to chemicals in crumb rubber is practically negligible, and so it is safe to practice sports at fields with crumb rubber infill.

The crumb rubber case is a clear example of a crisis with strong societal commotion, but involving low health risks according to experts. An accurate understanding of the public’s risk perception may contribute to effective communication during such a crisis. In this type of crisis, which is shaped by risk perception, differences in risk perception between people with different individual and cultural characteristics are likely to be evident. We assessed the perceptions of the Dutch public regarding the risk of crumb rubber before and after publication of the RIVM research results. In addition, we explored the influence of cultural and individual characteristics on these risk perceptions.

Two surveys, one in December 2016 and one in January 2017, were collected via an online survey panel. The study sample of a total of 1031 respondents consisted of 507 respondents representative for the Dutch population (18 years and older), 357 parents of children of 18 years or younger, and 167 parents known to have children of 18 years or younger who play soccer. Questions focused on perception of and responses to the perceived health risk of crumb rubber and several cultural and individual characteristics. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed.     


Risk Perceptions of Enhanced Weathering as a Biological Negative Emissions Option
Nick Pidgeon, Elspeth Spence
Cardiff University, CF10 3AT, Cardiff, United Kingdom

This paper addresses risk perceptions and the social acceptability of enhanced weathering, a carbon dioxide reduction technology which would involve spreading silicate particles over terrestrial surfaces in order to boost the biological processes which currently sequester CO2 as part of the earth’s natural carbon cycle. Carbon reduction technologies have gained in prominence following the Paris International Climate Agreement in 2015, which aspires to a global “balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases” (i.e. net-zero emissions) sometime between 2050 and 2100. The implication of this is that by then all remaining ‘positive’ fossil fuel emissions (e.g. from aviation, shipping, and other hard to decarbonise sectors) must be fully offset by operation of an equivalent set of ‘negative’ emission processes.We present the first exploration of British attitudes towards enhanced weathering as a biological negative emission option, using an online survey (n=935) of a representative quota sample of the public. Not surprisingly, baseline awareness of weathering was extremely low. When presented with a description many respondents remained undecided or neutral about risks, although more people support than oppose weathering. Factors predicting support for weathering and its research included feelings about the technology (affect) and trust in scientists. Over half of the sample agree that scientists should be able to conduct research into effectiveness and risks, but with conditions also placed upon how research is conducted; including the need for scientific independence, small-scale trials, strict monitoring, risk minimisation, and transparency of results. Public engagement is needed to explore in more detail why particular individuals feel either positive or negative about weathering at a climate mitigation option, and why they believe particular conditions should be applied to research, as part of wider risk governance processes for biological and other types of negative emissions technologies.


Evaluation of accident scenarios in the era of big data
Nicola Paltrinieri
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, NTNU, 7031, Trondheim, Norway

Evaluation of potential accident scenarios is of paramount importance for safety-critical industrial sectors such as chemical manufacturing. It supports design of appropriate safety measures to both prevent and mitigate their occurrence – denominated safety barriers. Specific regulations (e.g. Seveso directives) require safety reports to be provided to competent authorities before plants are built and operated. Operational support may also represent another purpose of such analysis, which benefit from the growing trend of collecting performance indicators. Progressively larger amounts of data on the performance of safety barriers are becoming available in industry on a (quasi-)real-time basis. Methods developed for “static” risk assessment, mainly aimed at supporting design, do not have the capability to process such information flows and eventually provide reliable results. However, specific risk assessment techniques may represent a suitable starting point for such perspective shift. The bow-tie analysis may be representative of the latter group. Its goal is twofold: i) identification of major accident hazards on the basis of the equipment and substances handled; ii) deep study of accident causes, probability levels and safety measures. Advanced methodologies have been developed to upgrade such methods to dynamic application based on continuous update and improvement of inputs. This contribution aims at providing an overview of the challenges faced by the current techniques and a selection of potential innovative solutions: from the dynamic update of hazard identification, to the continuous assessment of safety barrier performance based on technical, operational and organizational indicators. Furthermore, the contribution paves the way for future risk assessment techniques exploiting the recent re-birth of artificial intelligence, which would potentially allow for definitive cognition of lessons from past accidents.


National Styles of Communication: a new polder model?
Frederic Bouder 1, Ragnar Löfstedt 2
1 Maastricht University, 6211SZ, Maastricht, Netherlands
2 Kings College London, WC2R 2LS, London, United Kingdom

Since the early 1980s, multi-disciplinary efforts have been made to formulate universal risk and safety approaches. Advice on how to best communicate risks has been an integral part of this development. In Europe, however, the appeal of risk-based approaches varies according to context. For instance the probabilistic models adopted in the UK and the Netherlands have been avoided by French regulators outside the nuclear sector because they challenge the primacy of elected institutions. How do national approaches to risk analysis influence risk communication? Do they also imply distinctive ‘’national styles of risk communication’’?  In 2015 the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment commissioned a study to Maastricht University to test their latest holistic framework (Explicitly Dealing with Safety) among the risk-scientific community. We obtained formal feedback on the framework from a panel of 21 risk scientists as well as informal feedback from a much larger cohort. The concepts and ideas contained in the report offer valuable insights into how the Dutch environment agency envisage risk communication and how they deal with concrete cases. The analysis and feedback received points to distinctive patterns of risk communication à-la-Dutch that sometime follow and sometime depart from ‘’universal’’ risk communication principles.  

Tuesday, June 20th - Room #2 - 15:30 - 16:30
Parallel Sessions - Secure and resilient communities
Organizational vulnerability and cybersecurity risk to industrial control systems: developing a systematic attentional framework
Alberto Zanutto 1, Sylvain Frey 1, Karolina Follis 3, Awais Rashid 1, Jerry Busby 2
1 School of Computing and Communications, Lancaster University, LA1 4WA, Lancaster, United Kingdom
2 Department of Management Science, Lancaster University, LA1 4YX, Lancaster, United Kingdom
3 Department of Politics, Philosophy and Religion, Lancaster University, LA1 4YL, Lancaster, United Kingdom

The risks arising from threats to the cybersecurity of industrial control systems (ICSs) are receiving increasing recognition. Most of the concern has been technical, dealing for example with the interpretation of network traffic and the detection of intrusions. Our concern is with the vulnerabilities that organizations create, and how signals of these vulnerabilities can be obtained in a systematic way. The study is based on a series of unstructured interviews with key informants, ranging from academics through consultants to security managers. These interviews were analysed qualitatively to identify the informants’ discursive models – the theories and representations of organizational vulnerability to ICS cyberattacks constructed in their responses. These were then used to identify specific signals of vulnerability, which were grouped into categories.

The results of this analysis indicated that the largest category of signals were ‘attentional’: they concerned biases, gaps and limitations in processes of organizational attention. These included, for example, a bias towards physical security and away from cybersecurity, and a bias towards denying insecurities to avoid embarrassment. An attempt was then made to identify the heuristics that produced such biases, and this showed how readily vulnerabilities in attention could be ascribed to simple, general rules that were functional in an organizational setting. The results also showed that the informants regarded organizational vulnerability as consisting of stable characteristics, not transient events. The focus should thus be on what is normal, in contrast to the typical technical focus on what is anomalous. This normality of vulnerability is similar to Vaughan’s ideas about ‘normalised deviance’, and suggests vulnerability often goes unnoticed.

We propose a framework for systematically directing an organization’s attention to its vulnerabilities, using the signals identified from the key informants’ interviews. Each of the signals individually constitutes what has been characterized in the literature as a ‘weak signal’, but in combination these signals are likely to be better indicators, both of the overall level of organizational vulnerability and of its profile: the relative levels of different kinds of vulnerability. We suggest that a formal signal detection theory approach could be adopted to deal with these signals, but that it is hard to describe the vulnerability problem as a binary classification, and therefore that a proportionate response framework would be more suitable. We also draw conclusions about the links between vulnerabilities in organizational attention to security and ideas about collective mindfulness in the High Reliability Organizations literature.


The paradox of privacy: An experimental investigation of WTA Vs WTP
Cormac Bryce, Thorsten Chmura, Natalie Moore
University of Nottingham, ng81bb, nottingham, United Kingdom

The rapid proliferation of smartphones and move towards integrated technological platforms by corporate organisations has led to an ever increasing amount of personal data being captured on a daily basis. Information once considered sensitive such as bank accounts, medical records, consumption patterns and geolocation are now considered the building blocks of new business for organisations. It is therefore unsurprising that privacy preferences and attitudes towards risk and privacy protection now play an important role in the digital age we find ourselves. 

In this current paper we conducted a series of incentivised stated preference discrete choice experiments in which we compare individuals Willingness To Accept (WTA) and Willingnees to Pay (WTP) for the disclosure and protection of their private information. This comparison sheds light on the privacy paradox phenomenon and takes into consideration subjest risk preferences.


Indicators for Assessing and Achieving Resilient and Sustainable Communities
Leslie Gillespie-Marthaler, Kate Nelson, Mark Abkowitz
Vanderbilt University, 37235-1831, Nashville, United States

The concepts of resilience and sustainability may appear to be dueling frameworks for assessing system performance in the face of both natural and man-made hazards. However, the dependencies between resilience and sustainability and their mutual foundation in vulnerability and risk require a closer examination of how the two concepts contribute to community well-being.  Growing awareness of these concepts and their relevance to community vitality has created a need to better understand these interrelationships, and how they can be integrated in assessing and achieving resilient and sustainable communities.

This presentation describes the results of a study to develop indicators of resilience and sustainability for communities to apply in assessing the status of existing resilience and sustainability practices as well as to evaluate the potential of candidate improvement strategies. A resilient community is defined as possessing physical, social and organizational characteristics that allow a community to: 1) withstand a performance disruption when a hazardous event occurs, 2) recover rapidly following such an event, or 3) transform in response to the event in order to provide an acceptable level of service over the life of the system. A sustainable community operates by achieving balance across availability and performance of critical resources (social, environmental, and economic) such that negative impacts to the environment are reduced while positive impacts to society and economy are maintained at an acceptable level, both now and in the future. 

On the basis of a comprehensive literature review that generated several hundred prospective resilience and sustainability indicators, a subset of key indicators were defined and characterized according to several practical considerations (qualitative vs. quantitative, spatial and temporal scale, data collection and resource requirements, urban vs. rural applicability, etc.). As the study results are not prescriptive and are flexible with regard to the level of complexity and scale, it enables an individual community to customize a set of indicators for assessing and achieving community resilience and sustainability based on selecting those measures most appropriate for their circumstances.


Attitudes Towards Science as a Source of Risk In Policy Making
Frederico Francisco, Joana Gonçalves-Sá
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, 2780-156, Oeiras, Portugal

Scientific issues are increasingly present in policy-making and politics. From global challenges to local policies, several issues require solid scientific advice. However, there is often a disconnect between the scientific consensus (ex. climate change, vaccine safety) and the public’s opinion. This has been associated with poor risk perception (wrongly assumed to be too high in the case of vaccination and too low in the case of the climate) and to scepticism towards the scientific community. This has clear implications for risk analysis and communication.

Here, we present an analysis of different factors that correlate with generally more positive or more negative attitudes towards science (ATS). We expect that an identification of such factors can lead to better understanding of the drivers behind public behaviour(s) and to more informed decision-making.

We analysed a large dataset compiled from all “Science and Technology Eurobarometers (STE)”, spanning from 1989 to 2005, and comprising nearly 85000 surveys in 30 countries. First, we analysed the responses to each individual survey to characterize a set of ATS. This follows the ongoing discussion around the traditional assumption that high scientific literacy should lead to a positive ATS. Different factor analysis confirmed previous studies and showed no basis for the establishment of a single consistent measurement of attitude. However, knowledge does correlate positively with several attitude(s), some with high dependence. Second, we expand this analysis to include other variables in the STE dataset, such as self-reported levels of information on different subjects.

Third, and to explore possible good predictors, we repeated the above analysis with the responses grouped by country and by year. We then added a second independent set, composed mostly of economic and policy indicators, from the different countries included in the STE. We found the expected correlations between GDP, investment in education, and scientific literacy. We also identified country groupings that go beyond these simple relationships.

Interestingly, we found a connection between ATS and politics, both at the individual and country levels: the more engaged in politics, the more likely it is for the individual/country to show a generally positive attitude.

To confirm this correlation, we performed a directed survey, in Portugal. Different attitudes towards different science-related subjects, involving some sort of public controversy, were assessed. These attitudes were compared to self-reported levels of political interest and engagement to show that, indeed, there is a correlation between interest in politics and attitude, regardless of political affiliation.

Tuesday, June 20th - Foyer - 15:30 - 16:30
Parallel Sessions - Risk Perception and Risk Communication II
Disseminating correct food practices through the web: the role of food bloggers in food risks communication
Anna Pinto, Giulia Mascarello, Mosè Giaretta, Anna Nadin, Claudio Mantovani
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Health Awareness and Communication Department, 35020, Legnaro (PD), Italy

Today internet is considered as one of the main source of information on food risks (Kummervold et al. 2008). Blogs, in particular, have become a relevant area of study thanks to their ability to transfer information in a capillary manner and to create spaces for interaction among users (Baker and Moore 2008). Several studies examined the effects of the dissemination of unhealthy nutrition behaviours within blogs and forums (Dias 2003; Eichhorn 2008; Tierney 2006); however, to date there are no examples of Italian studies aimed at promoting correct eating practices in food blogs.

The research project here described was aimed at disseminating correct cooking habits targeted to consumers who surf the internet through the food blog network. The food bloggers were therefore involved in the research project as communicators who could be able to influence their followers’ food practices. In order to achieve this goal a strategy which combined social research, risk communication techniques and online training was experimented.

The first phase of the project consisted in the definition of the Italian food bloggers’ profiles. A quantitative online survey was conducted in order to analyse the bloggers’ communicative aims, the level of knowledge of the main food risks, their interest in food safety issues and their risk perception. A total of 277 Italian food bloggers were interviewed.

The second phase of the project consisted in the design and implementation of an online training course targeted to Italian food bloggers. 108 food bloggers enrolled in the training course and 44 got the certificate of attendance concluding all the assigned tasks. The online training, based on a community-centred approach, was conducted through interactive video lectures and online debates with the support of an online learning environment (Moodle platform). At the end of the training the bloggers were expected to do a project work which included drafting one recipe following the correct procedures for food management. The recipes have been published online in a specific recipe book (third phase). The satisfaction of the training course was assessed by administering an ex-post questionnaire to participants. Processed data highlighted a positive evaluation of the training course by food bloggers. All the training materials were made available online to enable the food bloggers to share and disseminate them through the web.


The role of ambivalence, desired lifestyles and identities in shaping perceptions of CO2 injection and storage risks
Gareth Thomas, Nicholas Pidgeon
Understanding Risk Group, School of Psychology, Cardiff University,, CF10 3AT, Cardiff, United Kingdom

This paper reports on findings from a two day deliberative workshop with members of the public, held as part of a wider project examining the risks associated with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS)- a technology designed to help combat climate change by catching CO2 emissions at source and injecting them deep underground. The workshop explored the ambivalences and anxieties of 12 participants considering a range of CCS technologies, in the context of wider transitions towards a low carbon society. Conducted near Drax Power Station; a plant previously earmarked for retrofitting with CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) technology under the UK governments cancelled CCS competition, the workshop aimed to explore perceptions in a community with experience of energy infrastructure and where CCS could plausibly be deployed in the future. Our analysis explores how participants drew on narratives from film and popular culture in order to make sense of CCS technologies, constructing the underground as a highly complex and uncanny space that humans meddle in at their peril. In this view, CCS tended to be viewed as undermining the natural systems and resiliencies upon which human societies depend. We also illustrate how communicating information on climate change and renewable energy intermittency had the effect of rendering these options equally ambivalent, due to the profound disruptions to social systems and desired lifestyles they may entail. While this shift did not reduce anxieties relating to CCS, they did serve to render them more tolerable in the eyes of most participants. In particular we examine how perceptions of naturalness and intuitiveness came to shape how CCS involving bioenergy and industrial capture came to be perceived as less risky, when compared to its use with fossil fuel powered energy generation. These technologies were perceived as enhancing resilience in the face of emergent risks to identities and desired lifestyles from anthropogenic global warming, or, radical changes in behaviour necessitated by energy demand reduction. While not viewed as a panacea, these options were deemed the most preferable among a range of ambiguous options.


perception of food safety and the 'worldview' of Dutch consumers
Carla Geijskes
Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority Office of Risk Assessment and Research, 3511 GG, Utrecht, Netherlands
University of Maastricht NUTRIM, 6200MD, Maastricht, Netherlands

Perception of food safety and the 'worldview' of Dutch consumers

 

Carla Geijskes and Antoon Opperhuizen

Office of Risk Assessment and Research

Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority

Chair of Risk Assessment and Risk Communication

NUTRIM, Maastricht University

The Netherlands

 

Since 2006 the Dutch government monitors the perception of citizens (the 'Consumenten Monitor Voedselveiligheid', 'Consumer Monitor of Food Safety', n = 3500 - 4100) about the safety of food. Biannually a set of standardized questions is released. A combined set of answers is applied and numerical values are used that indicate high (5) to low (0) trust in the safety of food. Results show that between 2006 - 2016 the average value is 3.5, but lower when food safety incidents occur.

In this study we analysed the pattern of the different elements of the Consumer Monitor. We tried to explain ups and downs in the values by combining details of the questions and answers with other sources of information. For example, more generic feelings about society may also influence the perceived food safety, like economical trust and political trust in the government. These observations are in line with the hypothesis of scholars as Karl Dake in the early ’90's about the social and cultural constructs of risk in society. Political, sociological and economic factors do seriously influence the 'worldview' of citizens, not only in the long run (years and decades) but also during shorter periods (months or less). Willingness to buy consumer goods as well as polls about the political party preferences of potential voters may be indicative for the 'worldview' of the general public. As such these parameters are used as ‘orienting dispositions’ in the present study that help to explain the results of the Consumer Monitor.

Moreover, the perception of safety also varies between different food products. For ‘basic’ products like fresh fruits, vegetables, dairy and bread the safety is perceived high and stable through the years. The perceived safety of meat (in particular pork and chicken) has decreased the last years, which can be explained by meat incidents, such as the horsemeat scandal in 2013. As for candy, vitamin supplements and products from the food manufacturing industry, the relatively low scores of perceived safety may be illustrations of Chauncey Starr’s paper 'Societal Benefits versus Technological Risk', which was published in 1969 and in which already a interrelationship between risk-safety perception of risk is related to general feelings and perceptions in public society.

Tuesday, June 20th - Auditorium #2 - 15:30 - 16:30
- Roundtable: Risk and resilience across borders
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Barbara Rath, Co-founder & Chair - Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative, Germany
Filipa Melo de Vasconcelos, General Sub-Inspector - Economic and Food Safety Authority (ASAE), Portugal
José Maria Albuquerque, Board Member - National Health Institute Dr. Ricardo Jorge (INSA), Portugal
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Tuesday, June 20th - Entrecampos Train Station - 17:10 - 23:15
- Social programme IV: Train tour & gala dinner
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The social programme includes: Train tour (with return trip) with complimentary drinks & biscuits; cocktail reception at the vinyard’s balcony; tour of the “Casa Ermelinda Freitas” museum & winery; Dinner; “Casa Ermelinda Freitas” complimentary gift.

Please note that the winery is located outside Lisbon. One train will be rented to accomodate all the conference participants and guests travelling. The departure will take place from the train station Entrecampos on Tuesday June 20, at 5.30pm.

After the last conference session's end at 4.30pm, we suggest all participants to go directly from the venue to the train station (walking distance = 20min; buses = 10min; taxi = 5min). You will find conference assistants ready to help you at the station (look for the SRA-E t-shirts). Please arrive through the street "Rua Dr. Eduardo Neves" that crosses the avenue "Av. 5 de outubro".

Desired time of arrival at the station is 5.10pm to ensure a timely and smooth boarding. Please note that there won’t be any delays in the departure time. The train will exit EXACTLY at 5.30pm from Platform 6-7.
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Wednesday, June 21st - Conference hall - 09:00 - 09:30
- Registration
Wednesday, June 21st - Auditorium #2 - 09:30 - 09:40
- SRA-E 2017 closing & SRA-E 2018 announcement
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Rui Gaspar & Sílvia Luís, Organizing Committee - 26th SRA-Europe Conference
Anna Olofsson, Organizing Committee - 27th SRA-Europe Conference
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Wednesday, June 21st - Auditorium #2 - 09:40 - 10:10
- Dr. Linkov: From Risk to Resilience: Shifting Paradigm
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Concepts are often prone to ambiguities driven by metaphorical usage that undermine science endeavors. Resilience, sustainability, risk, and risk communication are prime examples of this, where practitioners within these fields frequently contend with inaccurate or imprecise disciplinary definitions that ultimately lead to logic faults or unclear guidance for customers and stakeholders.

To address such concerns, this talk delves into the core meaning behind the disciplinary use of ‘resilience’ to advocate for a more operationalized usage of the term in our daily lexicon. Specifically, this talk will discuss resilience components such as (i) its normatively neutral (rather than inherently positive) framing, (ii) its inherent focus upon systemic and multi-temporal risk events, and the occasionally paradoxical relationship between resilience and sustainability in applied resilience scholarship and research. In this vein, this talk will raise a brief overview of the human – environment interaction in order to highlight the systematic entropic action that can simultaneously generate system resilience in some cases while increase system brittleness to the effects of others.
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After reviewing a general background of the disciplinary and definitional concerns in the fields of risk and resilience, this talk will review real-world field experiments which serve as some of the key risk-based challenges of our day. Applications from such ideas will be referenced from ongoing difficulties associated with ‘not-in-my-backyard’ (NIMBY) social dilemmas (described here as an example of the Tragedy of the Anticommons), where local publics can use their individual and collective power to resist project development within their local communities. Using these applied definitions of risk, resilience, and risk communication, this talk will ultimately highlight recent work which sought to address NIMBY coordination failures via a two-step approach that (i) generates trust and cooperation between such publics and project planners, and (ii) uses this trust and coordination to generate shared knowledge of risk within uncertain and potentially adversarial environments which inform future development action.

These field experiments indicate that a rigorous attempt to address public mistrust and perceptions of power imbalances and change the pay-off structure of the given dilemma may help overcome such anticommons problems in specific cases, and may potentially generate enthusiasm and support for such projects by local publics moving forward.
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Wednesday, June 21st - Auditorium #2 - 10:10 - 10:40
- Dr. Palma-Oliveira - Conflict, Risk & Resilience
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Risk-based approaches have been used to assess threats and mitigate consequences associated with their impact. Risk assessment requires quantifying the risk of failure for each component of a system and associated uncertainties, with the goal of identifying each component’s contribution to the overall risk and ascertaining if one component poses substantially more risk than the others. These components become the basis of quantitative benchmarks for the system, and becomes the de facto standard for system improvements designed to buy down risk. Rapid technological evolution, combined with the unprecedented nature and extent of emerging threats defy us to enumerate all potential hazards, much less estimate reliable probabilities of occurrence and the magnitude of consequences. A comprehensive approach to protecting the nation’s critical infrastructure, economy, and well-being must be risk based—not risk exclusive—and must provide a way for decision makers to make their organizational systems resilient to a range of threats within specific cost and time restraints. In contrast to the definition of risk, resilience is focused on the ability to prepare and recover quickly from threats which may be known or unknown. Resilience is a property of the system itself and can be measured without identification and assessment of threats which act on or within a system. Managing for resilience requires ensuring a system’s ability to plan and prepare for a threat, and then absorb, recover, and adapt. Coupled with a systems view that decomposes components across physical, information, cognitive, and social environments in which the system exists, is the basis of an approach to quantifying resilience with decision analytical tools and network science approaches.

This presentation will review the history of risk assessment and management, discuss the emergence of resilience management, and the role of both constructs in managing emerging risks. Case studies in the areas of infrastructure, transportation, cybersecurity, organizational behavior, and disease epidemics management will be discussed. Specifically, summaries of the two recent workshops on Risk and Resilience (Aspen, 2015 and Azores 2016) will be presented and the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) Guidebook on Resilience released in Davos in August 2016 will be introduced.
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Wednesday, June 21st - Auditorium #2 - 10:40 - 11:00
- Keynotes 4-5 Q&A
Wednesday, June 21st - Auditorium #2 - 11:30 - 13:00
Parallel Sessions - New methods, tools, data in risk & resilience research I
Unpacking the language of SARF: what did ‘public concern’ about ash dieback look like?
Julie Barnett, John Fellenor
University of Bath, BA2 7AY, Bath, United Kingdom

Questions relating to the public perception of risk continue to be the focus of scholarly as well as policy and practitioner attention.  Various issues that shape the public perceptions of risk are now well established, having been explored in terms of their psychological, social and cultural dimensions. The relation between media and public risk perception continues to be examined with the rise of social media providing fresh impetus to this discussion.  Within the integrative focus provided by the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, consideration of the nature of public risk perceptions is framed by notions of the intensification and attenuation of these perceptions. Thus considerations of public risk perception often attend to its rise and fall over time, the extent to which it relates to expert assessments of risk or document patterns of media coverage often implicitly – and unhelpfully – assuming this as a proxy for the nature of public attentiveness to the risk.  Arguably however, this focus obscures a consideration of the nature of this attentiveness – are particular publics perceiving risk; are they concerned, if not what does this attentiveness mean?  If yes what is the nature of this concern?

Against this backdrop, the current paper addresses the overarching question of what did ‘public concern’ in response to ash dieback disease, in unsolicited emails and phone calls to a Defra national helpline, actually entail? Our unique, naturally occurring data set comprised 1453 emails and 1677 calls from the general public to Defra and the Forestry Commission during the peak of media attention to the emergence of ash dieback disease in the UK in late 2012. We interrogated the data using Textometrica software and Connected Concept Analysis (CCA); a framework for text analysis which addresses both qualitative and quantitative considerations (Lindgren, 2016). The results illustrate the heterogeneous nature of the publics who chose to get in touch and indicate that concern was rarely expressed in the text of the email communications. We seek to unpack the range of reasons that people provide for contacting the authorities and the individual and social rationales provided. Finally we reflect on the implications of our analysis for the sort of material that is marshalled and re-presented by both scholars and policy actors in order to warrant claims of public concern. Our work will be of interest to scholars working not only with SARF, but also communication and media more broadly. 


Defining Resilience Indicators for Critical Infrastructure based on a Top-down Approach
Lars Bodsberg, Knut Øien
SINTEF, 7465, Trondheim, Norway

Modern critical infrastructures are becoming increasingly “smarter” (e.g. cities). Making the infrastructures “smarter” usually means making them smarter in normal operation and use: more adaptive, more intelligent… But will these smart critical infrastructures (SCIs) behave equally “smartly” and be “smartly resilient” also when exposed to extreme threats, such as extreme weather disasters or terrorist attacks? If making existing infrastructure “smarter” is achieved by making it more complex, would it also make it more vulnerable? Would this affect resilience of an SCI as its ability to anticipate, prepare for, adapt and withstand, respond to, and recover? These are the main questions tackled by the SmartResilience project (EU-VRi 2017). A major project ambition is to enable and support end users (authorities, operators and owners of critical infrastructure) to better assess and improve resilience of SCIs.

This paper will present results from one of the activities in the project; the development of resilience indicators for SCIs using a top-down approach. The indicators may be used for assessing resilience level according to a scale approach covering all attributes of resilience for SCIs. The approach considers five phases (understand risks, anticipate/prepare, absorb/withstand, respond/recover, adapt/learn) and five dimensions (system/physical, information/data, organizational/business, societal/political, cognitive/decision-making). A set of candidate indicators is presented for various threats and SCIs. These indicators may be customized to a specific SCI or a given user, based on the needs and requirements for the user.

Designing useful indicators requires extensive end user involvement to integrate the indicators into existing organizational processes. Several interviews have been carried out to establish a better understanding of end users’ current and projected challenges, needs and requirements for assessing resilience of SCIs. The candidate indicators have been developed through literature reviews and workshops covering finance, energy, health care, transportation, industry, water, urban flood protection, and a city environment.

The SmartResilience project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation pro-gramme under grant agreement No 700621.


A meta-study of nuclear power plants operational experience topical studies examining trends, characteristics and lessons learned
Zdenko Simic 1, Miguel Peinador Veira 1, Reni Banov 2
1 European Commission Joint Research Centre (EC JRC), Directorate G Nuclear Safety and Security, NL-1755ZG, Petten, Netherlands
2 University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia

With the goal to improve regulatory and operational aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) safety topical studies (TSs) are performed at the European Clearinghouse on Operating Experience Feedback (CH OEF).  These TSs are investigating NPPs events in order to analyse trends, dominant causes and derive relevant lessons learned like in comparable activities ([1.] and [2.]). Analysed events are coming from 4 sources covering 10-20 years of experience. Three events sources are from countries with significant number of NPPs in operation (i.e., U.S., France and Germany) and one source is OECD/IAEA International Reporting System (IRS). Country specific sources are representing a comprehensive and consistent database of their NPPs operating experience. The IRS database is exchange platform for 33 countries with voluntary contributions of event reports potentially important for NPPs safety. The IRS database lacks comprehensiveness but it still presents a valuable source for the study of OE.

The CH OEF has performed 19 topical studies since 2008. Topics are proposed by the European nuclear safety authorities, but can only be performed if the number of related events in the databases is sufficient. Depending on the topic, the number of relevant events from each source varies from ~1 to several hundred. Methodology to perform topical study is to study, characterise and analyse selected events in order to create lessons learned (conclusions). Dominant characteristic and derived lessons learned are not only related to specific topic. The question is how many of these common findings we can find by looking to these TSs together and could we derive some new insights. There might be potential to learn from studying similarities among individual topical studies. Perhaps most important contributing factors and especially important lessons learned could be identified or even some new insights could be derived from the meta-study (or combined analysis) of these individual TSs.

The following four recent topical studies were selected to perform this initial meta-study: Maintenance ([3.]), Loss of off-site power and station blackout ([4.]), Cooling chain ([5.]), and Cracks and leaks ([6.]). Meta-study approach will be to perform statistical and qualitative analyses of selected four studies: first separately for each of four events sources, and then if possible make both analyses also at the combined level. The expectation is to gain from this meta-analysis some more aggregated awareness and hopefully find out some new insights about the most important contributing factors and lessons learned for the safety of NPPs.


Relationships between the exposure and resilience in disaster risk reduction
Dorota Rucińska
University of Warsaw, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, 00-927, Warsaw, Poland

Abstract

When discussing the disaster risk definition, relationships between elements of the nature and society are meant. Based on risk concepts there are the following elements (factors) distinguished: natural hazards, the exposure, vulnerability, resilience, resistance, coping and adaptive capacity. Characterisation of selected risk elements and of the relationships between them aims to describe the role of these risk elements in the natural disaster.

Investigations performed in the recent decades, beside the interest in natural hazards, focus on the exposure, vulnerability, and resilience. The most important aspect of disaster risk reduction is an identification of hotspots and relationships between factors of the risk towards improved protection from natural hazards.

This article proposes the point bonitation method to describe relationships differentiation between the exposure and resilience in risk areas, and is commonly used e.g.: for an evaluation of natural environment, landscape, and tourist attractiveness level, as well as to identify threat in the landscape, and in the environmental management and spatial planning. The proposed method qualifies and quantifies the disaster factors in order to compare their role in different disaster areas. This article focuses on two kinds of disaster factors: (i) anthropogenic elements of exposure generating damages in urban areas, (ii) and natural factors minimizing damages and therefore contributing to the resilience. Depending on the intensity of the anthropogenic and natural feature, their are assigned with weight. Sensitive infrastructure in the coast and the density of population, as well as mitigating elements of the disaster located in the animate and inanimate nature were analyzed. The analysis are based on geographical data of Sri Lanka in the areas affected by tsunami.


The applied method indicates disaster factors requiring modification in risk management and adaptation to natural hazard. Investigation of relationships between the exposure and resilience  indicate the direction of investments in disaster risk protection and spatial management performed by local and regional authorities and administration. 


Home as haven? Why place attachment matters for perceptions and communication of risk
Tara Quinn 1, Francois Bousquet 2, Chloe Gerbois 3
1 University of Exeter, TR11, Falmouth, United Kingdom
2 CIRAD, 34980, Montpellier, France
3 Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 6530, George, United Kingdom

Exposed to changing demographic pressures and extreme climatic events, coastal areas offer unique opportunities to study the complexity of adaptation to global changes and the diversity of responses to risk. How populations and individuals act in the face of risk varies widely: rationalist and economic based understandings that focus on information dissemination have proved inadequate in fully understanding why people do or don’t perceive and act on risks. Here we use place attachment as a lens through which to understand perceptions of flood hazard at the household scale. We suggest a way of understanding risk that focuses on the different types of meanings people attach to local places and test the relationship between place attachment and risk perception. Our results from an extensive household survey (n=750) in coastal regions in the Languedoc - France, Garden Route - South Africa and in Cornwall- England demonstrate how processes of mobility shape configurations of place attachments, and what this means for social differentiation of risk.  Groups that hold different types of place attachment differ in their sensitivity to particular risks. Our analysis shows that using place attachment theory and methods deepens our understanding of the socio-cognitive processes that underpin how humans respond to environmental uncertainty, especially place related risk. In particular our findings are useful for policy makers in communicating flood risk and in understanding why people may choose not to protect themselves from potential flood events.

Wednesday, June 21st - Auditorium #3 - 11:30 - 13:00
Parallel Sessions - Uncertainty, climate change and energy policies
Climate change on the internet: An analysis of English and Norwegian social web contributions
Hans-Rüdiger Pfister 1, Gisela Böhm 2
1 Leuphana University Lüneburg, 21335, Lüneburg, Germany
2 University of Bergen, 5015, Bergen, Norway

This paper investigates the social discourse about climate change as it manifests in social web contributions. A quantitative content analysis of such web contributions is presented. Two samples of web contributions were drawn; one from English and the other from Norwegian social web sources (e.g., blog entries, reader's comments to articles). Each sample consists of approximately 1000 text units (a text unit being defined as a piece of text expressing a coherent thought or line of argument).  Each text unit was coded by two trained raters according to a coding scheme which was derived from the literature on climate change risk perception (Bassarak, Pfister, Böhm, 2017; Böhm & Pfister, 2017; Keller, Bostrom, Kuttschreuter, Savadorid, Spence, & White, 2012; Lorenzoni & Pidgeon, 2006). The coding scheme captured whether the following aspects of climate change (CC) were expressed in the text unit: (a) uncertainty of scientific evidence about CC, (b) controversial character of the societal discourse about CC, (c) impacts of CC and their seriousness, (d) moral evaluations of CC, (e) emotional reactions to CC, (f) the text unit author’s mode of reasoning (intuitive vs. deliberative). Results show few differences between the English and the Norwegian samples. Overall, the scientific uncertainty and the controversial nature of climate change are expressed only to low degrees. Furthermore, several discursive communities could be identified that differ in the extent to which they address climate science versus societal aspects of CC, the certainty versus inconclusiveness of scientific evidence concerning CC, and CC risks versus moral and emotional aspects of CC. Results are discussed in terms of the social amplification of risk and processes of polarization through filter bubbles.

 


Risk Governance of Climate Change Adaptation: A case study of risk-based decision-making in Germany and the UK
Manuel Friedlein
Maastricht University, 6211 LK, Maastricht, Netherlands

National governments face significant challenges in addressing climate change adaptation due to the persisting uncertainties that surround climate projections up to date. A new impetus for a better governance of climate change is needed. New trends in risk research have overcome old boundaries that limited this field of research to classic applications within the construction or health sector. However, it still remains to be seen whether such new risk approaches can be applied in a broader context also including climate change. This research adds to the current academic debate by taking the critique by Pidgeon & Butler (2009) on the failure of the applicability of traditional risk approaches to climate change and their initial mentioning of the potential of the IRGC framework one step further. By arguing that Renn’s risk governance framework (2005) overcomes the boundaries of traditional risk approaches, this research proves that the current state of the art risk analysis is suitable for the application to the governance of climate change adaptation. Nonetheless, what can Renn’s risk framework, representing the state of the art of risk science, really contribute to the debate on climate change governance? And how can national governments make more risk-based decisions regarding the governance of climate change adaptation? By using the case examples of Germany and the UK, which represent two different risk approaches within their climate change adaptation policy, the potential of the risk governance framework is highlighted. A qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents, homepages as well as secondary literature concerning climate change adaptation in Germany and the UK is used to scrutinize the posed questions. In addition, expert interviews with relevant actors involved in the process of climate change governance of the relevant countries were conducted. This research finds that in both countries there is still room for better inclusion of risk-based decisions into climate change adaptation policy.

 

References

IRGC. (2005). Risk Governance: Towards an Integrative Approach, White Paper No.1, O.Renn with an Annex by P. Graham, Geneva: International Risk Governance Council.

Pidgeon, N., Butler, C. (2009). Risk analysis and climate change. Environmental Politics. 18:5. p.670-688. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09644010903156976


Climate risk and vulnerability analysis applying the IPCC-AR5 concept in practice
Stefan Schneiderbauer 1, Marc Zebsisch 1, Kathrin Renner 1, Till Below 2, Michael Brossmann 3, Susanne Schwan 2
1 eurac research, 39100, Bolzano, Italy
2 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), 65760, Eschborn, Germany
3 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), 53113, Bonn, Germany

In its Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), published in 2014, the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has once again underlined the pervasive risks of climate change, which are an increasing concern for populations, ecosystems and many economic sectors globally and at all spatial scales (IPCC 2014). According to the IPCC terminology of the previous ARs, work related to these risks were called climate change impact or climate change vulnerability assessments. Based on the conceptual progresses made through the IPCC report on managing the risks of extreme events (SREX 2012), the latest IPCC assessment report AR5 has introduced a new approach using a revised terminology, particularly the notion of ‘climate risk’ (IPCC 2012). This new concept has the following important implications:

  • It contributes to an integration of the two research realms of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.
  • The introduction of the term risk forces the climate research community to consider explicitly the probabilities and / or likelihoods of consequences.
  • Though changing climate conditions are by definition long term processes, a large proportion of related impacts are triggered by extreme events. The concept of risks is widely used to address these impacts.
  • Dealing with risk is day-to-day business for many decision and policy makers and is hence for them more tangible than the notion of climate change vulnerability.

We therefore consider the new approach more likely to increase the awareness of potential climate impacts and to foster the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation.

This presentation aims to elaborate on the conceptual changes related to the introduction of the new risk-focused approach. It will point out advantages vis-à-vis previous approaches and it will scrutinise the potential cruxes in operational practice. This will be highlighted by the example of the Vulnerability Sourcebook, which was commissioned by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and developed jointly by adelphi, eurac and GIZ (GIZ 2014). Published in 2014 and already widely applied within the context of development cooperation projects in several countries (Pakistan, Burundi, Bolivia, Mauretania, Algeria, Mali), this Soucebook provides a standardised approach to assess potential climate impacts covering a broad range of sectors as well as different spatial levels. By doing so, it strongly considers the need to co-produce results with relevant experts, stakeholders and end-users. Originally developed according to the concept of the previous IPCC ARs it has recently been modified to allow for an assessment approach according to the IPCC AR5 concept.


Renewable energy and safety concerns: the case of secondary batteries
Roberto Bubbico 1, Cinzia Di Bari 2, Carla Menale 1
1 Department of Chemical, Materials and Environmental Engineering, “Sapienza” University of Rome, 00184, Roma, Italy
2 Laboratory of Systems and Technologies for Sustainable Mobility and Electric Energy Storage of the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Roma, Italy, 00123, Roma, Italy

In the framework of the continuous effort in reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing the amount of renewable energy sources, secondary batteries are playing a more and more significant key role. In fact, on one hand, they allow to make the use of the energy derived from these sources more continuous, in contrast with the intermittent availability which often characterizes them (e.g. wind energy); on the other hand, they allow its adoption in a much wider range of application, such as in the automotive industry, where the number of electric and hybrid electric vehicles is constantly increasing.

Consequently, a strong interest is present in the availability of efficient and reliable rechargeable energy storage systems both to be inserted in the main electric network (large stationary systems  and off-grid solar PV power systems), and to be installed on mobile electric vehicles. From this point of view, secondary Lithium-ion  batteries represent the most promising technology available at the moment.

However, despite the wide adoption of these batteries in a number of commonly used technologies (mobile cellular phones, laptops, etc.), a number of past accidents have raised concern about their introduction in the above mentioned larger systems where even much higher powers and energy densities are required (e.g. in the aeronautical and aerospace technologies).

In the present paper, an analysis of the causes and of the final consequences of as many as possible of the failures reported in the literature will be carried out. In addition, based on the main characteristics of the energy storage systems and of the specific life cycle under consideration, an efficient risk analysis methodology framework will be suggested, with specific reference to the Li-ion battery technology. This would allow a safer use of this important technology in a wider range of practical applications, thus leading to a more efficient use of renewable energy sources and, at the same time, reducing the risk to the possibly exposed people (either workers or consumers) and to the environment.

 

This work have been funded by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development, RSE PAR 2015

Wednesday, June 21st - Room #1 - 11:30 - 13:00
Parallel Sessions - Global health, global threats: Risk & resilience across borders
Synergistic risk and decision making: A study of whether knowledge of harmful drug-drug interactions affects drug dosing behaviours
Ian Dawson 1, Simone Dohle 2
1 Centre for Risk Research University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ, Southampton, United Kingdom
2 Social Cognition Center University of Cologne, 50931, Cologne, Germany

Recent studies indicate that nearly 70% of the adult population in developed countries now use medicinal drugs, over 20% are prescribed five or more drugs, and approximately 12% are exposed to potentially serious drug-drug interactions (Fokter, Možina, & Brvar, 2010; Guthrie, Makubate, Hernandez-Santiago, & Dreischulte, 2015; Slovic, Peters, Grana, Berger, & Dieck, 2007). The day-to-day responsibility of safely using combinations of medicinal drugs often rest with lay individuals acting in non-clinical contexts without professional supervision (Britten, 2009; Friedman, Geoghegan, Sowers, Kulkarni, & Formica, 2007). Consequently, understanding that certain drug combinations present a ‘synergistic risk’ (i.e., the risk attributable to the drug combination is greater than the sum of the risk attributable to each constituent drug) is often central to avoiding harmful drug-drug interactions (Bell, 1998; Sellers, Schoedel, & Romach, 2006). We conducted two studies to test whether providing individuals with information about a drug combination that presents a synergistic (cf. additive) risk elicited higher perceived risk and, therefore, increased precautionary dosing behaviours. Participants were presented with a scenario describing how two symptoms of an infection that could each be treated by a different drug. In Experiment 1 (N = 120), information about the effects of combining the two drugs was varied: (i) no information, (ii) combination elicits an additive risk, or (iii) combination elicits a synergistic risk. In Experiment 2 (N = 445), the size of the risk (small or large) and the participant’s role (patient or doctor) was also varied. In both studies, perceived risk and negative affect increased in response to information about the increased probability of side effects from the harmful synergistic drug interaction. Despite these increases, participants did not adjust their drug dosing behaviour in either experiment: dosing was similar when these interactions were large or small, or when they had synergistic or additive effects. These findings suggest that people may struggle to transfer their knowledge of drug-drug interaction risks into decision making behaviours. Hence, both researchers and medical professionals should take care not to assume that holding accurate risk perceptions of a drug’s side effects will result in decisions that help to avoid harmful drug interactions.


The Dutch one-health strategy to restrain the emerging threat of antibiotic resistance
Marcel Mennen, Mariken van der Lubben
National Institute of Public Health and Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA, Bilthoven, Netherlands

Antibiotic resistance (ABR) constitutes a worldwide emerging threat and risk for society. Without measures to restrain this threat, the costs and burden of disease will gradually rise to a huge extent in the coming decades. One of the most obvious threats now is carbapenem resistance (CPE), since carbapenems are last resort antibiotics and the ability to cure infections with this antibiotic becomes very limited. Combatting the threat of ABR requires measures in different domains, e.g. reducing the use of antibiotics in human care and animal husbandry, adequate surveillance in humans, animals and environment, and improved cooperation between cure, care and public health institutions. Moreover, there is a need for new antibiotics and alternative methods and means to treat infection diseases.

The risks related to ABR can be classified as ambiguous. The transmission of ABR can easily be underestimated. For long time, resistant bacteria can go unnoticed, while they spread among healthy people and in animals and the environment. Consequently, the threat is not easily and broadly recognized and awareness amongst the public is low. Moreover, professionals, scientists, policy makers and directors of health care institutions considerably differ in their judgment of the impact and the necessity of enhanced national and international control. The current measures against ABR in human health care follow the perspective of human medicine: screening, treatment and isolation of infected hospital patients. Future measures may be stricter give rise to ethical questions. Elevation of CPE may ask for long-term isolation and measures that go beyond the medical profession and intervene in personal life.

Understanding the mechanisms and spread of ABR amongst people, animals and the environment requires adequate, risk based surveillance in the human and veterinary domain. For this purpose, enhanced cooperation between health care and research institutions at national and local level is a prerequisite. In addition, an integrated governance model is desired aiming at a balance between timely detection, outbreak control, and proportionality of measures.

In recent years, the Netherlands developed an integrated one-health strategy to combat ABR and control the threat. In this presentation, we elucidate this strategy and the difficulties of its implementation, and we discuss the different benefits, risks, pitfalls and future expectations.


Innovative drugs: are prices too high? A French case studies.
Pierre Bentata
ESC Troyes, 10000, Troyes, France

In this paper we observe how the French population react to the communication of the pharmaceutical industry regarding the prices of innovative drugs. After explaining the French regulation on drugs price setting, we quantify the costs of R&D and the returns on investment of the 15 largests pharmaceutical companies wolrdwide. Whereas these costs and the financial constraints of the pharmaceutical industry may explain the prices of innovative drugs, we observe that both employees from these companies and patients consider prices are too high and profit margins too important. Based on interviews of key employees from the pharmaceutical industry, representatives of patients associations and state officials from the French Ministry of Health, we observe two important failures in the pharmaceutical industry communication: first, patients and the overall population are not familiar with the French regulation and therefore believe that pharmaceutical industries are not regulated and free to decide the price of their innovative drugs; second, managers within the pharmaceutical companies have lost their credibility and are not able to provide relevant information to their employees who are now reluctant to work for the pharmaceutical industry. 


Effects of pro- vs. anti-vaccine narratives on responses by recipients varying in numeracy: A cross-sectional survey-based experiment
Wandi Bruine de Bruin 1, 6, Annika Wallin 2, Andrew M. Parker 3, JoNell Strough 4, Janel Hanmer 5
1 Center for Decision Research, Leeds University Business School, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom
2 Department of Cognitive Science, Lund University, 222 22, Lund, Sweden
3 RAND Corporation, 15213, Pittsburgh, United States
4 Department of Psychology, West Virginia University, 26506, Morgantown, United States
5 Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 15213, Pittsburgh, United States
6 Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 15213, Pittsburgh, United States

Purpose: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend flu vaccinations for almost all Americans over the age of 6 months. To inform patients’ vaccination decisions, health-care providers may share statistical evidence based on scientific studies and narrative evidence based on their experiences.  Indeed, patients often welcome narratives describing other patients’ evaluations of their healthcare experiences.  Narratives can provide pro-vaccine or anti-vaccine evaluative meaning that especially low-numerate patients struggle to derive from statistical information.  However, concerns have been expressed (based on for example the social amplification of risk framework) that people could potentially perceive anti-treatment narratives as more informative than pro-treatment narratives. 

For the present study, we designed narratives about flu shots, which differed in pro-vaccine and anti-vaccine evaluative meaning, but provided otherwise equivalent content. We examined whether the anti-vaccine (vs. pro-vaccine) narratives had stronger effects on judged vaccination probabilities due to being perceived as more informative, especially among recipients with lower numeracy.

Methods: We recruited 1113 participants from a US national internet panel. They were randomly assigned to a narrative that was (a) pro-vaccine or anti-vaccine, and (b) presented by a patient discussing a personal experience, a physician discussing a patient’s experience, or a physician discussing the experience of 50 patients.  Pro-vaccine narratives described flu experiences of patients who got the flu after not getting vaccinated; anti-vaccine narratives described flu experiences of patients who got the flu after getting vaccinated.  Each participant additionally received a standard CDC pamphlet with statistical information about vaccinations. Participants indicated their probability of getting vaccinated and how informative they perceived the narratives to be.

Results: Participants with lower numeracy rated narratives as being more informative, especially narratives that were anti-vaccine.  Multi-mediation analyses suggested that low-numerate individuals’ judged probabilities of getting vaccinated were reduced by anti-vaccine narratives -- and to a lesser extent boosted by pro-vaccine narratives -- due to their perceiving narratives as more informative.  These findings held whether narratives were provided by patients or physicians.

Conclusions: Health-care providers may add narrative information when presenting statistical evidence to inform patients’ decisions.  However, as compared to high-numerate recipients, low-numerate recipients seem to rely more on such narrative information when making their decisions. We propose potential risk communication strategies for providing patients with the narratives they want, while correcting the differential sway of anti-vaccine narratives. Findings have implications for the development of health communications and decision aids.

Wednesday, June 21st - Foyer - 11:30 - 13:00
Parallel Sessions - Resilience, decision-making and uncertainty I
Integration of Quantitative Risk Assessment Methods for Transport Fatality Estimates – a Case Study.
Kevin Oldham 1, Jessica Spinetto 1, Celia Cunningham 1, Chris Ballantyne 2
1 Navigatus Consulting Limited, 1051, Auckland, New Zealand
2 New Zealand Transport Agency, 6141, Welligton, New Zealand

Estimating expected rates of transport fatalities requires quantitative risk assessment of widely differing scenarios. These scenarios can range from incidents that occur many times per year, with typically single fatalities, through to rare but catastrophic events where hundreds of lives may be lost in a single incident.  

A problem for transportation system risk managers and regulators is how to prioritise improvement effort to reduce risk. Efficient deployment of effort requires a valid understanding of the systemic risks across the whole transportation mode. Commonly available data sets are discussed, along with pitfalls, and how those data sets can be analysed and integrated to develop a coherent and valid assessment.  The methods are illustrated by a national rail risk assessment case study.

The novel feature of this approach is the integration of differing quantitative risk assessment (QRA) methods to build an overall system-wide quantitative risk assessment. This poses issues of consistency and reliability, which need to be overcome.

The case study describes how this approach was applied to develop a New Zealand national rail risk assessment covering national freight operations, passenger services, industrial operators and the tourist and heritage sector. A distinctive feature of the assessment is that it covered a wide range of incident probabilities, including some incident types that have never occurred on the New Zealand rail system. Another novel feature of the assessment is that it addresses both natural hazards and system operational risks.  The case study describes the types of data sources accessed, the QRA methodologies chosen, and how those selections were influenced by factors such as the frequency of incidents, the rate of fatalities per incident, data quality and the pace of rail system safety improvements.

The case study also discusses responses to the finding that a largely unrecognised natural hazard arising from tsunami poses a significant rail transportation risk with potentially catastrophic outcomes. 


Energy security risks: Public perceptions, resilience and decision-making
Christina Demski, Nick Pidgeon
Cardiff University, UK, CF10 3AT, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Energy security resilience and risk is of increasing, if not primary, importance in UK energy policy and elsewhere. Nonetheless it is a poorly defined and under-researched concept within public risk perception. Thus, this paper will synthesise insights from existing research to draw conclusions about public conceptions and perceptions of energy security risks at both national and personal levels. The analysis will be based on quantitative and qualitative data from three projects examining public perceptions of energy systems and transitions (e.g. Butler et al., 2013; Demski et al., 2011, 2014, 2015).

Early research on public perceptions of energy security has found that people are highly concerned about a number of aspects such as dependence on other countries and the reduced availability of fossil fuels. As such, public risk perception appears to be high. However, people also express feelings of uncertainty associated with judgements about energy security risks, specifically when energy security is conceptualised at more abstract or national (rather than personal) levels. Furthermore, risk perceptions appear to be much lower for concrete conceptualisations of energy security, e.g. our UK respondents did not expect electricity or gas shortages that might affect their everyday use of energy.

Other research focusing on the personal use of energy has shown that people think about energy in a way that indicates it is perceived as a social good, i.e. necessary for living a healthy life. In line with this, people express the belief that energy accessibility and affordability should and will be guaranteed to them. This type of public discourse diverges from UK policy framings of energy provision and security, which discuss energy as a commodity and encourage consumers to act accordingly (e.g. search for best deals and energy providers).

Taken together these findings have a number of potential implications. Specifically, implications for attributions of responsibility (e.g. who has to ensure energy security), perceived control (i.e. the extent to which people feel they can do something about energy security), resilience (e.g. the extent to which people engage in behaviours that ensure they are resilient to future energy outages or price hikes) and decision-making (e.g. the behaviours people engage in to ensure energy availability as well as the way policies are designed by government). These and other emerging themes will be analysed to enrich our understanding of public perceptions of energy security risks and discuss potential futures lines of research.


The biasing effect of symbolic information and perceived naturalness on evaluations of environmental hazards: The case of fracking
Bernadette Sütterlin, Michael Siegrist
ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Consumer Behavior, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland

People tend to base evaluations of outcomes or consequences on informational attributes of high symbolic significance, while ignoring other crucial information. For example, they strongly rely on symbolic meaning that relates to the naturalness of the cause of a hazard (human vs. nature-caused), and this may result in biased judgments (Siegrist and Sütterlin 2014). The misleading effect of symbolically significant information has been shown in risk assessments of solar and nuclear power-generation technologies. The current study provides evidence for this bias, for an energy source that has become a critical focus in the energy debates in certain countries—namely, hydraulic fracturing or "fracking"—and investigates the underlying process further.

In an online experiment, participants were provided with a text describing how several hundred animals had died due to toxic chemicals that had been released into the soil and entered the water of a nature reserve. The participants were told either that 1) the chemicals had originated from a burst pipe of a fracking installation ("man-made” chemicals, human cause), 2) the chemicals were naturally occurring but were released because of vibrations caused by a nearby fracking installation (natural chemicals, human cause), or 3) the chemicals were naturally occurring and were released because of an earthquake (natural chemicals, natural cause). Our analyses revealed that participants perceived the identical outcome (i.e., the death of several hundred animals) as being more severe when the hazard was human-caused (i.e., fracking) than when it was caused by nature (i.e., earthquake). Furthermore, the participants perceived animal suffering to be lower when they died because of naturally occurring chemicals released by an earthquake, compared to chemicals released from the burst pipe of a fracking installation.

The present findings on risk assessments of fracking suggest that people base their evaluations of outcomes primarily on the nature of the cause and its symbolic meaning, and this results in biased judgments. This bias is driven by the cause of the hazard, rather than the naturalness of the "direct cause" of the negative effect (i.e., chemicals). This study’s findings provide further evidence of people's propensity to rely on the symbolic meaning of the cause of a hazard, rather than on concrete information about outcomes; it also shows how this propensity tends to bias evaluations of energy sources and environmental hazards in general.


Foundations in New Interaction (“Samhandling”). Risk Based Theory – A scientific model
Glenn-Egil Torgersen 1, 2, Herner Saeverot 3, Ole Boe 1, Bjoern Eidsvaag 1, Trygve Steiro 4, 5
1 Norwegian Defence University College, 0015, Oslo, Norway
2 University College of Southeast Norway, 3603, Kongsberg, Norway
3 Department of Education, Bergen University College, 5020, Bergen, Norway
4 Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Teachers Education, 7491, Trondheim, Norway
5 Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy, 7491, Trondheim, Norway

Foundations in New Interaction (“Samhandling”). Risk Based Theory – A scientific model

This presentation/paper introduces a suggestion for a unifying model and definition of the Norwegian term “samhandling” (interaction, coordination), adjusted meet the unforeseen and risk term associated to the unforeseen. It also looks into other specified conditions.

The approach and development occurs in the light of semantic theory construction and basic research. The core is how established and possible new underlying interaction factors behave during different phases of a risk development escalation,  with particular emphasis on the three emergency phases in the unforeseen oriented Bow tie model, which was developed and published in "Pedagogy for the unexpected" (Torgersen, 2015), and was previously presented at SRA-E (2015; 2016). This is relevant, since the majority of basic research regarding “samhandling” (interaction) until now, has taken place in predictable and safe conditions, not fully taken into account possible dynamics at different stages in the risk process. Particular emphasis is put on the relationship between theory and practice, and the model is based on how different emergency and risk-oriented organizations in Norway uses the term “samhandling” (interaction / coordination).

When we use the word "new” we mean new scientific approaches, methods, theory and model adjustments, based both on experience, case studies, empirical studies and theoretical deduction, which in turn may have implications for theory formulation, conceptual content and practice for operational management, training strategies and specific training. Also, we include small nuanced adjustments in the model. However, in a practical and operational setting, these nuances can be of great importance and the purpose of significant improvement.

The model will be launched, included in the forthcoming scientific anthology "New Interaction theory - interaction under risk, which will be launched in autumn 2017 (written in English and provided as Open Access. The decision writing in English is based on input from the SRA- E conference in 2016). The new and improved model, however, gets its first public launch of SRA-E Conference 2017 (Lisbon).


Off-shoring external borders of the European Union as a strategy of risk management and governance.
Anna Moraczewska
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031, Lublin, Poland

The process of migration is not a new challenge for the European Union but its scale. Efficiency of borders remains in focus on institutional and operational levels more than ever. A crisis of the contemporary borders in the EU can be investigated from two perspectives: theoretical and practical. It refers to an increasing uncertainty about the idea or concept of the present border itself and secondly it concerns a displacement of border practices in different forms. State borders, traditionally perceived as the territorial markers of the limits of authority and sovereignty, have abandoned their “territorial trap” towards a spatial dimension. As a consequence a traditional distinction between internal and external security of the state has blurred and regular entry and exit points at the border spread beyond. Hence, one can find a concept of “bordering practices” instead of border control, which describes filtering rather than blocking out flows of people and goods that stretches beyond the external borders of the European Union. This practice can be called off-shoring borders and in this presentation concerns ‘off-shoring’ of the EU migration controls. It is a pre-emptive operation held outside the European Union’s territory, to deter illegal migrants from leaving, as well as assessing asylum and immigration claims before they reach shores of the EU. Such practices, approved by official bilateral agreements, can be found e.g. in Libya, Turkey, Moldova, Ukraine and defined as a risk management in practice of the EU external borders as well as a risk governance of these borders by transferring European standards and norms of control at its externalised borders.

Wednesday, June 21st - Room #2 - 11:30 - 13:00
Parallel Sessions - Coastal, maritime and flood risks
Exploring Risk and Identity with New Technology - the Swansea Bay tidal lagoon
Andrew Roberts
Understanding Risk research Group, Cardiff University, CF10 3XQ, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Tidal lagoons are a promising new form of renewable energy infrastructure that can offer the production of a reliable source of clean energy, simply by harnessing the power of the tides. With some of the highest tidal ranges in the world the UK is positioned well to benefit from the energy that these lagoons can create, and with a recent UK government report recommending that a lagoon is capable of making a significant contribution to the UK’s energy supply in an affordable manner there is now a need to understand the risks that this infrastructure creates.

This research utilises the case study of the proposed Swansea Bay lagoon – the first proposed project and the subject of the recent Hendry Review – with an analytical focus on what impact the lagoon has on individual and community identity and how this is communicated. Consisting of three rounds of data collection with stakeholders, publics and opposition groups, the research explores how concepts such as place attachment and lifestyle interact with broader notions of identity and community identity to inform risk decisions – and what this might mean for the future of the tidal lagoon industry. 

The study also seeks to establish how cultural probes might be utilised as a tool to examine risk issues by using them as an interactive method to critically engage participants with questions on their imaginations of the future. Whilst findings from the research are forthcoming, it can be said that cultural probes offer a useful technique for exploring risks associated with currently non-existing technologies as well as the understanding behind them.

Initial analysis indicates that whilst there is generally support and excitement at the prospect of a tidal lagoon in Swansea Bay, there is also little initial critical thought on what impacts the lagoon might have as well as limited understanding of the technology itself. The use of cultural probes during interviews offered participants a chance to become more critically engaged with the project design, offering a potential snapshot of how acceptance of the lagoon may change in future. 


Autonomous adaptation to climatic hazards and its determinants for building resilience in Taiwan’s fishing communities using a social network approach
Hung-Chih Hung 1, Guang-Ming Guo 2
1 Department of Real Estate and Built Environment, National Taipei University, Taiwan, 23741, New Taipei City, Taiwan
2 Department of Real Estate and Built Environment, National Taipei University, Taiwan, 23741, New Taipei City, Taiwan

1. Background

Climate change and extremes have posed a serious risk to the coastal communities in the Asia-Pacific region (UNISDR, 2012). Fisheries and aquaculture play a vital role in the local economy of these communities, especially Taiwan. It is anticipated that where the risks of climate change, flooding and sea-level rise are predicted to increase, this will severely reduce the fishery production and affect the livelihoods of fishing villages. Although many public measures are applied to encourage autonomous adaptations, there are limited effects and potential for maladaptation (Poussin  et al., 2014). Existing studies have paid relatively little attention to the social network and social capital factors that contribute to autonomous adaptations (Hung et al., 2016). This study aims to offer insights into fisherman’s adaptation decisions for climate risk, as well as to map their social networks of implementing adaptation strategies and to examine their determinants.

2. Methods and data

Combining a social network with social-psychological theory (Rogers, 1975; Varda et al., 2009), we develop a Social Network Model of Fishermen Adaptation to Climatic Hazards (SOMFACH) to explain fisherman’s decisions to take adaptation actions. A survey was conducted among fishermen in three fishing communities in Taiwan. These communities are located in both the most important aquaculture and the riskiest areas to climate-related hazards. The survey was conducted through a face-to-face and door-to-door interview, which was designed by integrating focus group meetings with pre-test surveys in the same sampling areas. Then, using a stratified random sampling, 350 fishermen were selected. Finally, 305 respondents were used in the analysis with a response rate of 87%. 

3. Results

We map the distributions of the social networks between the fishermen and related stakeholders, which can enhance the understanding of the social capital factors that affect fisherman’s adaptation behavior. Then, we used a Logit regression to test the SOMFACH. Results show that the social networks play a role in determining fisherman’s adaptation behavior. The number of fisherman’s social networks connected to other fishermen and local financial institutes is significantly positive to encourage adaptation actions. The findings show that risk information and risk appraisals have only minor effects on adaptive behavior, while the coping appraisals are a strong predictor. Public resources and financial aids were shown to be influential in fisherman’s adaptation decisions. Thus, public measures can focus more on communicating available adaptation strategies to fishermen, as well as improving the institutions that can provide various channels and types of assistance to increase fishermen coping appraisals, and, thereby, enhance resilience and adaptive capacity.


UK Public Perceptions of Ocean Acidification – The Importance of Environmental Identity and Affect
Elspeth Spence, Nicholas Pidgeon, Paul Pearson
Cardiff University, CF10 3AT, Cardiff, United Kingdom

The marine environment is affected by climate change in many ways but it is also affected by the separate problem of ocean acidification (OA). Anthropogenic carbon dioxide that is absorbed by the ocean causes changes in ocean chemistry including a reduction in pH. Fisheries and shellfish industries, which are vital livelihoods for some communities have already been affected by OA. As there has been little research conducted to examine public risk perceptions of this risk, we aimed to explore this through a mental models approach (Morgan et al. 2002) and will present work from the third phase of this project. In the first two phases, we developed expert and public mental models of risk perceptions towards OA and compared these models to highlight areas of agreement, important knowledge gaps, and key misunderstandings. In the public sample we found low awareness of this risk with acid rain, chemical waste and pollution frequently believed to be the main cause of OA. However, many respondents did recognise that it would impact on numerous organisms and knock-on to marine ecosystems. Additionally, many perceived OA as a highly negative issue despite their unfamiliarity with this risk issue.

We will present survey data from the UK population (N=954), which was conducted to determine if knowledge and beliefs identified in the interviews could be found on a wider scale. The survey also explored a range of psychological factors including concern, place attachment, and environmental identity (Whitmarsh & O'Neill, 2010). Part of the regression analyses found that more knowledgeable participants had stronger environmental identities, were more concerned about OA and climate change, and also felt more negative about OA as expected. This was a mental models approach exploring knowledge of OA, however, it is clear that affect (Slovic, 2010) and identity were important factors and should not be neglected in mental models work, particularly for unfamiliar risk issues. As unfamiliar and complex risks such as OA are becoming more prevalent and must be successfully communicated in a world full of information, it is important to consider how OA is perceived by the public and can inform policy decisions in future.


Coastal Risk Challenges and Societal Responses in China
Guizhen He
State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100085, Beijing, China

Coastal zone takes up only 13% of China's total land area, yet contribute 60% of the national GDP. The Chinese coastal zone, especially urban areas, however, facing increasing environmental risk challenges. While the construction of large chemical plants in populous coastal cities continues unabated, urbanization has created severe environmental consequences along China’s coastline, such as red tide incidents and marine ecosystem degradation. Especially, residents’ reactions to potential environmental hazards of proposed chemical plants, waste pipes, and waste incinerators. These have presented the government with a particular challenge in coastal cities. Public response is therefore one major factor determining the success of chemical industrial policies. This paper aims to investigate how Chinese citizens perceive chemical industrial parks (CIP) policy in China, for what reasons they oppose it, and to what extent and for what reasons they accept it. Our focus is on citizens in three coastal cities - Dalian, Xiamen, and Maoming – where chemical industrial parks are located/ the government aims to install chemical industrial parks. Based on a face-to-face and online questionnaire survey in these three representative cities of Chinese CIP policy in coastal cities, we have examined the nature and level public acceptance towards chemical industrial parks. Results show that respondents were more positive towards national and future policy, but more negative of CIP policy at the city and project level. Public acceptance was significantly influenced by procedural fairness, distribution justice, side impacts and benefits of CIP, and the residential distance to a CIP. We advocate the consideration of public acceptance beyond single projects of industrial policy change, and argue for the relevance of examining the internal and external factors that underpin public responses and acceptance in addition to specific preferences.


Cumulative risk judgments and choice: an application to flood risks
Cristobal De La Maza 1, Ines Azevedo 1, Alex Davis 1, Cleotilde Gonzalez 2
1 Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 15213, Pittsburgh, United States
2 Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, 15213, Pittsburgh, United States

Catastrophic events, such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and tsunamis are rare. Yet, cumulative risk of an event occurring at least once over an extended time period can be substantial. When making decisions, people often fail to account for the fact that increased exposure will increase the cumulative risk of an event occurring at least once over. In the present work we use flooding risk as a familiar, concrete example. We assess floods cumulative risk perception, how this affects insurance decisions, and whether people’s judgments can be improved providing simple cumulative risk information. There have been attempts to understand cumulative risks in the judgment and in the choice literature, but to our knowledge no prior studies have combined direct cumulative risk judgments and choice. To do so, we use a randomized experimental designed, where participants in an online survey are assigned to either a judgment tasks or a choice task first. We find that respondents' cumulative risk judgments are well represented by a bimodal distribution, with a group that severely underestimates the risk and a group that moderately overestimates it. We also find that individuals whose judgments underestimate cumulative risks make more risk-seeking choices. Our results show that a common approach of providing information about the annual risk of an adverse event, such as a catastrophic flood, could expose public to harm they would not accept when fully informed. Instead, materials aimed at helping decision makers improve their choices should include cumulative risk information. It is cheap to provide this information to people, and such strategy has the potential to improve both the public’s perception of the cumulative risks of natural hazards, and their choices in face of uncertain outcomes.

Wednesday, June 21st - Auditorium #2 - 13:30 - 15:00
Parallel Sessions - New methods, tools, data in risk & resilience research II
Measuring risk perception: What is the best way?
Robyn Wilson 1, Adam Zwickle 2
1 The Ohio State University, 43210, Columbus, United States
2 Michigan State University, 48823, East Lansing, United States

Risk perception is typically measured in a variety of ways.  The most popular perhaps being some combination of probability and consequence, or likelihood and severity.  However, the measures reported in the literature also include items related to worry, concern, exposure, and vulnerability just to name a few.  We conducted a review of the literature to identify the range of measures used previously, and then developed a survey instrument to test the variety of risk perception measures with a representative online panel of U.S. citizens.  We used item response theory to identify the most valid and reliable measure of the construct from the set of possible items.  We tested these multi-item measures of risk perception for three different hazards ranging from rather benign contexts (e.g., radon) to those more ideological in nature (e.g., climate change).  We also measured individual traits of the respondents to assesss how responses to particular items may vary by respondent characteristics.  Results of the measurement study will be presented and recommendations for how to best measure risk perception will be discussed.


Driver perceptions of risk from smart phone use while driving
John Watt 1, Asma Saud Alfayez 2, David Ball 1, Huw Jones 1
1 Centre for Decision Analysis and Risk Management, School of Science and Technology Middlesex University, NW4 4BT., London, United Kingdom
2 Risk Management Unit, Deanship of Quality and Academic Accreditation, University of Dammam, 31441, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Modern smart phones and other technological innovations have changed the array of activities that are likely to provide significant distraction to drivers. There has been considerable earlier research aimed at understanding the risk perception of drivers regarding mobile phone use while driving in order to improve communication between decision-makers and drivers so as to develop a better risk management plan. The primary objective of this study is to identify how drivers perceive the risk of a number of new driving distractions and evaluate the influence of different risk characteristics on these perceptions using the psychometric paradigm.

A survey was applied to students, administrative staff and teaching faculties from the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Risk perceptions of activities such as checking social media, reading, writing, taking photos and searching for music via their mobile phones will be discussed.


How far is it? Distance perception and vulnerability in cities.
Radu Ionescu 1, Iuliana Armas 2
1 University of Bucharest, 050107, Bucharest, Romania
2 University of Bucharest, 050107, Bucharest, Romania

Our research in Bucharest has identified the most vulnerable areas in the city in case of an earthquake. We used socio-economic data from censuses in 2002 and 2011, earthquake scenarios, and distance to resilience-enhancing points in space (e.g., parks, fire stations, etc.), to achieve a comprehensive picture of where vulnerability hotspots can be found in an urban environment. We propose two underlying reasons for an areas’ vulnerability: education and connectedness. This work discusses the later. We shall argue that distance perception is somehow linked with vulnerability. The mental map of the city, as present in the minds of its inhabitants, is not the same as the one on Google Maps. We hypothesize that persons in vulnerable areas will perceive various points in the city to be significantly further away than they really are, when compared to persons from resilient areas. We can then use these perceived distances to push and pull the real map and generate a ‚distorted’ map showing how the city is represented in the minds of its inhabitants. Several theories, from various fields, are put forward to justify why a relationship would exist between how connected an area feels to the rest of the city and the vulnerability of its people.

 

 


Female Babies as a Determinant of Adult Risk-Aversion
Ganna Pogrebna 1, Andrew Oswald 2, David Haig 3
1 University of Warwick, Warwick Manufacturing Group, CV4 7AL, Coventry, United Kingdom
2 University of Warwick, Department of Economics, CV4 7AL, Coventry, United Kingdom
3 Harvard University, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, MA 02138, Cambridge, United States

Learning the sex of an unborn child is an exogenous ‘shock’.  This paper uses that idea to explore the causal effect of child gender on parental attitudes to risk.  The study collects before-and-after data from hospital paediatric wards.  On a Holt-Laury criterion, the parents of daughters, whether unborn or recently born, are shown to be almost twice as risk-averse as parents of sons.  The study demonstrates this in cross-sectional and longitudinal data.  It offers evidence for fathers and mothers, for unborn and recently born children, and for a West European nation and an East European nation.

For a parent, learning the sex of an unborn child is an important and exogenous informational ‘shock’.  It is also an event that can, in general, be accurately dated (usually to a single day).  This paper exploits that as a form of natural experiment.  As far as we are aware, this is the first study of its kind. 

The analysis finds that parental attitudes to risk are shaped by the gender of their child.  In a regression equation, the measured effect of child gender is, in these data, considerably larger than that of other influences upon adult risk-aversion.  On a Holt-Laury criterion, the parents of daughters, whether unborn or recently born, are approximately twice as risk-averse as parents of sons.  The child-gender effect is detectable before birth and for some months after birth (we cannot say for how long, because our data do not extend for many years after birth).  It is also visible in parents of both sexes, which is one reason to suggest that it cannot have a single hormonal explanation. The study’s results seem potentially of importance to a range of scientific disciplines.

The pattern documented in the paper is not merely a cross-sectional phenomenon.  In the longitudinal sub-sample, which is perhaps scientifically the most persuasive evidence, it is possible to check for ‘switching’ behaviour.  That is what is observed in the data set: a within-person comparison reveals that parents alter their risk attitudes after they have been informed about the gender of their baby.


Assessing consumers' perceptions of electricity use: Does providing reference points help?
Vedran Lesic 1, 2, Wändi Bruine de Bruin 1, 4, Matthew Davis 3, Ines Lima Azevedo 4, Tamar Krishnamurti 4
1 Centre for Decision Research, Leeds University Business School, LS2 7QS, Leeds, United Kingdom
2 Consumer Data Research Centre, University of Leeds, LS2 7QS, Leeds, United Kingdom
3 Socio-Technological Centre, Leeds University Business School, LS2 7QS, Leeds, United Kingdom
4 Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 15213, Pittsburgh, United States

Consumers often find it hard to assess how much electricity is used by their household appliances. Providing a ‘reference point’ (or how much electricity is used by another appliance, such as a single lightbulb) can be a simple yet effective strategy to improve the accuracy of consumers’ perceptions of appliances’ electricity use. The aim of this study is to test whether the provision of single or multiple reference points improves consumers’ perceptions of appliances’ electricity use.

In a US online survey, 504 participants reported their perceptions of electricity use (in Watt hours) for nine different appliances (e.g. air conditioner, electric oven, dishwasher, coffee maker, freezer, refrigerator, laptop, TV and cell phone charger) as used over the course of one hour. Participants were randomly assigned to receiving one of five experimental conditions: (i) no reference point, (ii) a single low reference point (light bulb), (iii) a single high reference point (electric dryer), (iv) two reference points, one low and one high (light bulb and electric dryer) and (v) three reference points, including one low, one medium, and one high (light bulb, washing machine and electric dryer).

We found that providing one low or more reference points (rather than no reference point) influenced the accuracy of perceptions of electricity use across all of the appliances presented. Specifically, participants who received a single low (e.g. light bulb), or two or three reference points reported more accurate perceptions of electricity use for specific appliances.  Also, in conditions with two or three reference points, participants were more confident in their estimates and perceived the task as less difficult. Furthermore, participants in our study underestimated the use of high electricity consuming appliances (e.g. air conditioner, dishwasher) but overestimated the use of low electricity consuming appliances (e.g. laptop, TV).

Our findings suggest that reference points play an important role in improving the accuracy of perceptions of electricity use across different appliances. We discuss the importance of incorporating reference points in the design of effective electricity feedback for consumers.

Wednesday, June 21st - Auditorium #3 - 13:30 - 15:00
Parallel Sessions - Human factors, organizational & occupational safety
Environmental and health risks of household cleaning products: conventional vs green labelled products
Rachel Hollis 1, William Young 2, Chris Rayner 3, Wandi Bruine de Bruin 4
1 University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom
2 School of Earth & Environment, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom
3 School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom
4 Centre for Decision Research, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, United Kingdom

Introduction

Consumer concern about chemicals in cleaning products is growing. Many of the ingredients within cleaning products are associated with asthma, respiratory irritation, allergic skin reactions and skin irritation. Green cleaning products claim to contain non-toxic, plant-based ingredients and are often marketed as a safer alternative for health as well as the environment. However, no research has yet attempted to compare green and conventional cleaning products on the hazards that they pose to the environment and to human health. This study is the first of its’ kind to compare the hazards associated with green and conventional cleaning products using the information that is available to consumers.

Method

Ingredient information for 94 multi-purpose cleaning products sold in the UK was collected from manufacturers’ websites; 15 of these were green cleaning products and 79 were conventional. Information about the concentration of these ingredients is not available so this could not be taken into account. Information about each chemical and its’ associated environmental and human health hazards was recorded from the European Chemicals Agency website. There were 20 different hazard categories that a chemical could be classified as. The total number of chemicals with each of the classified hazards from ECHA in each product was calculated, and then these totals were compared between green and conventional products using non-parametric tests.

Results

There were no significant differences between green and conventional products on any of the environmental hazards. Green products contained significantly more chemicals that could be toxic or fatal in contact with skin, as well as containing significantly more chemicals that could be damaging to organs. There were no significant differences between green and conventional products and the amount of chemicals they contained that could result in an allergic skin or respiratory reaction, or respiratory and/or skin irritation.

Conclusion

From a toxicity perspective, the lack of significant differences between green and conventional products on environmental toxicity poses questions as to how beneficial green cleaning products are to the environment. The lay belief that green cleaning products are more beneficial to health than conventional cleaning products may be unfounded. Those with asthma and allergies associated with specific chemicals cannot rely on a product being green to be suitable for their needs. However, these conclusions are tentative because the concentration of a chemical within a product will impact on its’ overall toxicity, and this could not be taken into account.

 


Accident analysis: the misattribution and its consequences
Daniela Lima 1, José Palma-Oliveira 2, Miguel Pereira Lopes 1
1 Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas, 1300- 663, Lisboa, Portugal
2 Faculdade de Psicologia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-013, Lisboa, Portugal

The importance of work accidents’ analysis is undeniable in a continuous improvement and risk reduction process in industrial activities. Despite the existence of multiple models of accident analysis, their operationalization is difficult, so that technicians and decision structures are often tempted to make simple causality assignments, usually related to the fundamental attribution error (usually blaming the operator). To test this and other hypotheses, a study was carried out comparing university students and industrial safety technicians, to understand their causal attribution when faced with a series of real work accidents. Furthermore, it was also analyzed the variables that subjects evaluate as more relevant when confronted with those accounts. The results of this work will be presented allowing not only to analyze the type of causal attributions of the two groups, but also to promote a systematic comparison of the variables considered fundamental in accidents’ analysis. Recognition of existing biases in causal attribution and underestimation or overestimation of the importance of certain explanatory factors will be critical in designing much more efficient training processes.


Do change management theories provide safety in organizational changes in high-risk industries? How do change management theories mismatch safety theories?
Gunhild Sætren
Nord University, 7500, Stjørdal, Norway

Many changes in organization fail to reach the intended objectives (e.g. Meaney & Pung, 2008). This is also true for changes in major hazard organizations (Sætren & Laumann, 2015). However, the consequences are potentially larger if a technological change go wrong in a major hazard organization than other. The main objective here is thus to compare two theoretical perspectives; change management theory and safety theory, to the theory of man made disaster in order to explore if an explanation could be found there.

A common theory in management of organizational changes is the one of Kotter (1996). However, this theory could be regarded to have an insufficient safety focus if compared to for instance the theory of high reliability organization (HRO) (Weick & Sutcliffe, 2015) or man made disaster (TMM)  (Turner, 1978). If the steps of explaining an accident such as Turner’s TMM does, is compared to the organizational change theory of Kotter (1996) and the high reliability theory of Weick and Sutcliffe (2015), this could be an explanation why alternative change management theories should be considered.

The steps of TMM starts with a starting point with accepted beliefs, from this follows an incubation period before a disaster occur. The next two stages are the consequences, and the rescue and salvage before finally stage five is a cultural readjustment. Comparing this to HRO, and having the accident as a main factor, one see that the two theories fit. In order to prevent the accident, HRO have three techniques to prevent the accident, and if the accident occur, there are two techniques to prevent the consequences to be more devastating than necessary. However, the change management theory of Kotter’s first step is to create an urgency. In other words, this theory has a starting point by creating the “accident”. There are no steps in order to prevent an urgency, yet rather the objective is to create one. This way, changes will occur, which also is shown through the TMM, as the final step is cultural readjustment in both Kotter’s and Turner’s theory. However, it could be questioned whether this is a safe change process compatible to major hazard organizations. I thus argue that Kotter’s theory follows a recipe for an accident and therefore provide change based on an accident theory, which is probably not the optimal theoretical basis to use when leading a change in major hazard industries.


A dynamic approach to psychological strength development and enhanced esilience in the face of risky and unforeseen incidents
Ole Boe, Glenn-Egil Torgersen, Bjoern Eidsvåg
Norwegian Defence University College, 0015, OSLO, Norway

We introduce an approach that we refer to as ‘character strengths development and resilience building’. This approach is characterized by the view that character strengths are not fixed traits that occur across settings and time. Instead, we adopt a dynamic, within-person approach derived from positive psychology, and from research and assessment on character strengths. More specifically, we see character strengths as highly contextual phenomena that have a huge impact upon the development of resilience. These phenomena emerge in distinctive patterns alongside particular goals, interests, values, and situational factors. We then highlight the three emergency phases in the unforeseen oriented Bow tie model, developed by Torgersen in 2015. Thereafter we discuss how our approach for character strengths and enhanced resilience can facilitate adaption and increase resilience during the three emergency phases in the unforeseen oriented Bow tie model. The development of certain character strengths thus reveal huge potentials to build an increased resilience among personnel in high-risk organizations. A continuous development of certain character strengths may also lead to an increased adaption and functioning in risky situations. We further discuss the relevance of certain character strengths in relation to the concept of risk-willingness. Research has revealed that specific character strengths are important in order to face and to thrive in risky situations. We also postulate that the same character strengths will be highly relevant when facing unforeseen incidents, as represented by the unforeseen oriented Bow tie model. Finally, we outline potential psychological gains, such as resilience, associated with our proposed dynamic character strengths development approach.


Fatigue Risk Management System: How to correlate the fatigue risk with aircraft accident risk
Cláudia Cabaço
NetJets Transportes Aéreos, 2745-550, Paço de Arcos, Portugal

The aviation industry works 24hrs x 7 days x 365 days. Humans need to sleep. Therefore, there is always a human being working in a period of the day where it should be sleeping and/or in a different time zone. Hence, it may occur that pilots might be fatigued when on duty. Fatigue is a human factor hazard, which affects human performance leading to error(s) that can impair the safety of the flight operation, contributing to an aircraft accident. Therefore, fatigue is a flight safety risk.

Fatigue has been cited as a contributing factor in 15 to 20% of worldwide fatal aviation accidents associated with pilot error; fatigue has played a role in the accident causation chain.

Aircraft operators are required to manage the fatigue risk through a Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS), which aims to ensure that crew members are sufficiently alert so that they can operate to a satisfactory level of performance and safety.

ICAO defines the FRMS as a ‘A data driven means of continuously monitoring and managing fatigue-related safety risks, based upon scientific principles and knowledge as well as operational experience that aims to ensure relevant personnel are performing at adequate levels of alertness.’

There are currently several risk assessment methodologies (qualitative and quantitative) available in the aviation industry to risk assess safety issues and its potential accident scenarios.  These methods consider the sequence of clear and objective safety barriers failing, such as aircraft equipment failure, non-compliance of procedures, etc.

There are bio-mathematical models available to predict the fatigue risks. These are based on sleep regulation models, duty start and duty end times, time zones and number of flights performed that output a predictive fatigue risk, using different fatigue and alertness scales. These models also output the expected percentage degradation of the pilot’s reaction, such as reaction time to warnings, acceptance to risk taking, etc. These errors can indeed contribute to an accident when aligned with other factors. But it is not known if having a 43% reduction time in response to a warning how will that contribute to increase the accident risk? What is the correlation between these two risks: fatigue risk vs. accident risk?  How should the fatigue risk be factored in the aircraft accident risks models?

This is the current challenge that the aviation industry is experiencing as part of its FRMS and where efforts and focus is.

Wednesday, June 21st - Room #1 - 13:30 - 15:00
Parallel Sessions - Risk and resilience in extreme and major events I
Hi Vis and Low Vis: How environmental change decision making is shaped by different dimensions of risk
Tara Quinn, Katrina Brown
University of Exeter, EN5 4AR, London, United Kingdom

Coastal regions are experiencing increasing rates of social and ecological change, the risks associated with these changes are tasking strategic decision makers with difficult to navigate decision making contexts. Individuals working in environmental management in public and private organisations manage a range of different types of risks in their roles, and the relationships between these risks are important in understanding why certain decisions get made. Orders of risks (societal risks versus organisational risks for example) have been demonstrated to influence decisions around environmental change. Our results highlight the importance of the relationships between different orders of risks and how they interact to shape decisions. From the analysis of data from a design led workshop focusing on coastal management and interviews our findings highlight that decisions to manage environmental risks are influenced by interactions between first and second order risks. We explore how this interaction can open up or narrow down adaptation decision-making spaces. These findings help to elucidate the dynamic processes that shape how decision makers manage risk in uncertain situations and brings to the fore the role of institutional and cultural processes in the negotiation of options related to environmental risk management. 


Experts and decision makers’ risk assemblage in the face of uncertainty: The case of invasive tree pests and diseases
Julie Urquhart 1, Clive Petter 1, Julie Barnett 2, John Fellenor 2, John Mumford 1, Chris Quine 3
1 Imperial College London, SW7 1NA, London, United Kingdom
2 University of Bath, BA2 7AY, Bath, United Kingdom
3 Forest Research, EH25 9SY, Roslin, United Kingdom

In this paper, we focus on how the risks associated with invasive tree pests and diseases are assembled by experts and decision-makers. In recent decades there has been a dramatic increase in new tree pest and disease epidemics, which has been closely linked to globalization, trade and climate change. As with other ‘wicked problems’, expert and policy assessments of the risks are fraught with uncertainty, both in terms of the available scientific evidence, which often emerges as outbreaks unfold, and the potential impacts of the pest or disease.

The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) is often used as a theoretical tool for assessing the social, psychological, institutional and cultural processes that influence risk perceptions. However, despite the SARF authors asserting that there is no such thing as ‘true’ (absolute) risk and ‘distorted’ (socially determined) risk, the use of the framework as a communication-reception process implies that expert risk assessment, and any communication and signaling of risk that results, constitutes the ‘real’ or benchmark risk against which the public’s ‘perceived’ risk is either intensified or attenuated. This is problematic when there are high levels of uncertainty and where experts and decision-makers may disagree about the nature of the risk and its impacts.

Through semi-structured interviews with 52 experts, policy makers and high-level stakeholders, we explore how uncertainty is encountered in three tree pest and disease outbreaks:  Ramorum blight (Phytophthora ramorum), ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus and oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea). Our analysis exemplifies how experts and decision-makers are social actors, drawing on a range of information sources, social networks, heuristic devices and personal observations to construct their assessments of risk and uncertainty. Further, their attention to what they perceive as public concern may influence management responses and lead to various social, environmental and institutional ripple effects.

We conclude by suggesting that a more socially-mediated process of risk assemblage is required, especially when there are high levels of uncertainty. We also ask how far the attributions experts and decision-makers make about public concern become risk drivers with the public acting as a ‘social station of risk amplification’ influencing how decision makers assess tree health risks.


Using discrete choice methods to assess the relationship between air quality and support for clean energy in China
Ines Azevedo 1, Brian Sergi 1, Alex Davis 1, Jianhua Xu 2, Tian Xia 2
1 Department of Engineering & Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 15213, Pittsburgh, United States
2 Department of Environmental Management, Peking University, 100000, Beijing, China

China currently faces critical challenges in the energy sector. Although it is the world’s largest carbon emitter—making it a central player in the effort to mitigate climate change—it has pledged to achieve a dramatic turnaround by peaking emissions in 2030. Furthermore, despite the need to continue to produce cheap electricity for its development, the country has been beset by deteriorating air quality, resulting in public outcry. To move forward, China will need to consider how to balance the tradeoffs of providing low-cost electricity, reducing air pollution, and meeting its climate goals.

In this work, we present an ongoing study in which we design and administer a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to assess how individuals in China make tradeoffs between climate, health, and economic consequences when evaluating electricity generation scenarios. In this online DCE, individuals face a series of screens and are asked in each screen to choose one of two alternatives. Each of these alternatives is characterized by four distinct attributes: the electricity generation portfolio of their province (i.e. percentage coming from renewables, nuclear power, and fossil fuels), their monthly electricity bill, and changes to carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions levels. Each individual sees 16 of these comparison screens, with various attribute combinations for the different alternatives selected from a subset of all possible combinations.

We will evaluate respondents’ preferences for each of the survey attributes using a mixed logit random utility model. This model will be used to assess respondents’ preferences in terms of probability of support for various attribute combinations, as well as willingness-to-pay for emissions reductions. In addition, we will test for interactions with observed, daily air quality to see whether respondents’ preferences for emissions reductions correlate with actual pollution levels. Interactions using various temporal aggregations of the air quality data will be tested to assess whether correlations are characterized by existing social-psychological theories on availability heuristics, such as evaluation by moments and the peak-end rule.

To date, we have already designed the survey and conducted a small-scale pilot test involving 50 people in Beijing and Shanghai. We next plan sample 1000 participants recruited from public spaces across 10 cities in China, which we hope to complete in March.


Bouncing forward after the rain - Findings from a theoretical framework to enhance transformational resilience within a post-flooding context.
Kate Crinion 1, Martin Haran 1, Stanley McGreal 1, David Mcilhatton 2
1 Ulster University, BT37 0QB, Newtownabbey, United Kingdom
2 Coventry University, CV1 2TL, Coventry, United Kingdom

Past research has demonstrated that disasters are continuing to escalate in frequency and magnitude worldwide, representing a key concern for the global community. The inherent risk of climate change and its relationship to natural disasters, is closely aligned to the prediction that recent records of the unprecedented scale and frequency of disasters is a trend that is set to continue. Understanding and responding to the increasing risk posed by disaster events has become a key concern for disaster managers. An emerging trend within literature, acknowledges the need to move beyond a state of coping and reinstatement of the status quo, towards incremental adaptive change and transformational actions for long-term sustainable development. As such, a growing interest in research concerns the understanding of the change required to address ever increasing and unpredictable disaster events. Capturing transformational capacity and resilience, however is not without its difficulties and explains the dearth in attempts to capture this capacity.

Applying a mixed methods case study approach, this research assesses how awareness and perceptions of risk, influence the mobilization of resources and capacity that drive community resilience. This research forms part of a wider on-going PhD study, comprising the development of a theoretical resilience framework, informed by an extensive literature review and pilot study. Applying this framework by grounding and testing it within the case study area of Cumbria in England, permits the identification of community resources and capacities that build community resilience. Further, it assesses how levels of social capital and connectedness influence the mobilization of these resources and capacities that drive transformational resilience. Developing an understanding of this interplay between the harnessing of community capacities and social connectedness, allows communities to benefit from critical reflection and lessons learned, thus enhancing their ability to move beyond a reinstatement of the status quo and instead bounce back after the next disaster. Thus, this paper seeks to expand the existing body of knowledge by enhancing the awareness of risk and resilience in post-disaster affected communities, by empirically investigating indicators of community level capacity building and resilience actions that facilitate transformational resilience during the recovery and reconstruction phase of a flood disaster. 

Wednesday, June 21st - Room #2 - 13:30 - 15:00
Parallel Sessions - New methods, tools, data in risk & resilience research III
Risk Assessment of Semi-Autonomous vehicles Using Driver Behaviour Risk Analysis: A Paradigm Shift in Motor Insurance
Cian Ryan
University of Limerick, 0000, Limerick, Ireland
Vision Inspired Driver Assistance Systems (VI-DAS) - A Horizon 2020 Research Project, 0000, Limerick, Ireland

The evolution towards semi-autonomous and eventually driverless vehicles will progressively remove human error as the leading cause of vehicle accidents, significantly lowering vehicle accident frequency rates. Contracting personal motor insurance lines are anticipated as a result and liability is projected to shift towards Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), tier 1 and 2 suppliers1 and software developers, generating potentially large loss exposures for these industries. This transition may force a departure from existing underwriting and actuarial methods to ensure risks are correctly identified and priced so that safe deployment of semi-autonomous and driverless vehicles is facilitated. Semi-autonomous and connected vehicles will generate enormous amounts of driving data. Such telematics and naturalistic driving data can be utilised to better understand emerging risk exposures and enable vehicle advancements and deployment through the provision of product liability and recall coverages. In order to develop insights into the risks involved, this paper will examine likely risk trajectories across the 6 levels of vehicle automation, from a risk management perspective. The application of driver performance and behaviour analysis to semi-autonomous vehicles is demonstrated using Bayesian Networks as a novel machine learning method for risk estimation. Hundreds of millions of autonomous miles are required to sufficiently estimate autonomous accident frequency and severity rates. With this in mind, we propose a method to analyse any deviations from a defined normal/safe driving performance, matched with contextual factors, in order to better assess technology limitations and capabilities. Deviations include any sudden or unexpected change in driving patterns whether that is swerving, braking, system disengagement etc. The resulting likelihood and severity of these deviations can be used to model expected claims loss for personal motor, product liability and product recall insurance coverages. 

This work is supported by the VI-DAS (Vision Inspired Driver Assistance Systems) a European Commission, Horizon 2020 research consortium [grant number690772].

1 Tier 1 suppliers are direct suppliers to OEM’s whereas Tier 2 supply Tier 1.


Bayesian networks for comprehensive scenario analysis of nuclear waste repositories
Edoardo Tosoni 1, 2, Ahti Salo 1, Enrico Zio 2
1 Aalto University, 00200, Espoo, Finland
2 Politecnico di Milano, 20100, Milan, Italy

The safety of nuclear waste repositories can be assessed by analyzing all relevant Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) (Savage 1995) and their interactions in order to generate scenarios that support the assessment of radiological consequences (Campbell & Cranwell 1988). Yet, ensuring the comprehensiveness (STUK 2015) of this process of Scenario Analysis can be difficult due to time and budget constraints. For instance, it may not be possible to analyze all scenarios or, more modestly, to identify which scenarios need to be analyzed to conclusively assess the safety of the repository. Moreover, analysts have to characterize epistemic uncertainties, too (Aven & Zio 2011).

To address these challenges, we propose a method of Scenario Analysis based on Bayesian networks (BNs) (Pearl & Russell 2003) whose nodes correspond to the FEPs, which are modeled as stochastic variables with finite discrete states. Interactions between the FEPs, shown as links between these nodes, are modeled through conditional probabilities that are derived either by (i) reproducing the underlying phenomena (such as copper corrosion and radionuclide transport) through computer-code simulations or laboratory experiments, or (ii) eliciting expert judgments (Laitila & Virtanen 2016). Each scenario, defined as a complete combination of FEP states, leads to unacceptable radiological consequences with its corresponding failure probability.

Because comprehensiveness can be difficult to guarantee due to computational or experimental resources, we propose an iterative algorithm for guiding the selection of the scenarios for which simulations need to be run for assessing whether or not the failure probability exceeds the stated acceptability threshold. At each iteration, the algorithm (i) guides the choice of the next simulation and (ii) uses the result to update the interval-valued failure probability. The algorithm terminates when the interval becomes conclusive, either because its lower bound exceeds the acceptability threshold (repository unsafe) or because its upper bound is below the threshold (repository safe).

In the BN, epistemic uncertainty is dealt with by aggregating probability estimates from different experts through weighting, and by using multilinear optimization (Toppila & Salo 2013) to determine conservative estimates of the bounds of the failure-probability interval.

We illustrate our method by building a BN for a simplified nuclear waste repository in which most interactions are addressed through expert judgments while a physical model of radionuclide transport (Cadini et al. 2016) is employed to simulate the release rate. In this example, the safety assessment can be completed by running simulations for no more than 25 % of all scenarios while still guaranteeing conservativeness in the treatment of epistemic uncertainties.


Towards Automating People and Company Risk Extraction for Extended Due Diligence Support
Jochen L. Leidner, Timothy Nugent
Thomson Reuters, Research & Development, The Reuters Building, 30 South Colonnade,, E14 5EP, London, United Kingdom

Many situations require large organizations to actively monitor media for risk exposure to stakeholder groups. For example, anti-money laundering (AML) regulation requires banks to screen account holders when opening an account and on an ongoing basis. Journalists monitor media (including social media) to obtain leads for news stories. Operational risk managers, hedge funds and investment managers want to know the risk exposure associated with their current investment portfolio and potential new investment targets. Therefore, many interested parties have started to support their manual monitoring for risk exposure to companies or people with automation support, e.g. using text alerts based on keyword lists with relevant words or phrases ('slavery', 'corruption', 'forced labor') to obtain business advantages or to comply with regulations more effectively.

However, keyword-based methods either do not fully account for the variability of language (if they are incomplete) or they create a lot of spurious matches due to a lack of understanding (if they are exhaustive), the so-called false positive problem. For example,  “fine” could denote a regular enforcement action in one context, yet in another context denotes happy emotional state; the latter instances lead to erroneous alerts (false positives) by string matching technology.

            In this paper, we give a definition of the problem of computer-supported risk identification for people and company entities. We then demonstrate a proposed solution for the false positive problem, which is based on a combination of taxonomy learning, natural language processing and machine learning. We also demonstrate how we our method can learn new risk language on an ongoing basis (new future risk types lead to new names for these risks) in order to avoid our system to go ‘stale’. Seeral use cases for applications of the technology are outlined, and we conclude discussing some remaining technical challenges the privacy implications of this new technology.

 


A multiple criteria decision aiding method for classification of risks
Ana Sara Costa 1, 2, José Rui Figueira 1, José Borbinha 2
1 CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal
2 INESC-ID, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029, Lisboa, Portugal

Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA) methods are considered a suitable tool for classifying the objects of a decision (such as, for example, actions, alternatives, or options) into different categories (classes or groups). In the context of risk management, techniques that can classify risks and risk factors into different categories can be very relevant for the activities of risk assessment. In this work, we propose a new MCDA method for nominal classification problems. A multiple criteria nominal classification problem exists when the categories are pre‑defined, but no order exists among them. Addressing a problem of that kind consists, therefore, of assigning each action, assessed according to its performances on multiple criteria, to at least one category. The method we propose follows a decision aiding constructive approach. Each category is characterized by several reference actions, assuming that all the used criteria are significant for the decision under consideration. Thus, these reference actions should be previously defined, through a co‑constructive interactive process between the analyst and the decision‑maker (which, in an application to risk management, means a collaboration between a risk expert that is aware of the method, and the “owners” of the domain, to create, depending on the defined risk context, categories for, for example, risks, controls, risk events, consequences, and so on). After that, the assignment of a specific action of the domain of the problem to a category depends on the comparison of such an action to the reference actions according to a membership degree. The membership degrees are defined for each category by the decision‑maker, as expert in the domain. The main properties of the method and their proofs are provided. Some potential applications are introduced in order to show the main features of nominal classification problems. A case study is also presented to illustrate how the proposed method can be applied in the scope of risk management, as also to stress its potential and limitations.

 

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) with reference UID/CEC/50021/2013. The first author acknowledges financial support from Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Técnico, and CEG‑IST (Ph.D. Fellowship).


ELECTRE TRI-nB: A new multiple criteria ordinal classification method
José Rui Figueira 1, Eduardo Fernandez 2, Jorge Navarro 2, Bernard Roy 3
1 CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal
2 Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Mexico, 80013, Sinaloa, Mexico
3 LAMSADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, 75775, Paris, France

This paper presents a new method for multiple criteria ordinal classification (sorting) problems. This type of problem requires that the different classes or categories be pre-defined and ordered, from the best to the worst or from the worst to the best. A set of actions (not necessarily known a priori) is assigned to the different and ordered classes.  Several ELECTRE type methods were designed to deal with such a problem. However, no one proposes to characterize the categories through a set of limiting profiles. This is the novelty of the current method, which may be considered as an extension of ELECTRE TRI-B. It fulfills a set of structural requirements: uniqueness of the assignments, independence, monotonicity, homogeneity, conformity, and stability with respect to merging and splitting operations. All these features will be presented in the current paper as well as a case study in risk management.

Wednesday, June 21st - Foyer - 13:30 - 15:00
Parallel Sessions - Risk and resilience in extreme and major events II
Humanitarian Logistics and Transport Networks : An Evaluation of Hierarchy, Network Properties and Logistics Tasks
Seda Kundak, Mete Basar Baypinar, Eda Beyazit, Huseyin Murat Celik, Yucel Torun, Stella Maria Gkika, Yasin Sezer Turk
Istanbul Technical University, 34437, Istanbul, Turkey

Humanitarian Logistics aims to provide both physical movement of goods and services as well as management of materials during disasters with high efficiency, under deteriorated conditions of the transport and production systems.  The scale and scope of disasters impose significant logistics challenges. The structure of the local or regional transportation systems and their network properties provide different opportunities and challenges for humanitarian logistics activities. The role of higher hierarchy transport terminals and connections on the establishment of large-scale logistics activities is clear, as they provide a basis for major materials convergence and distribution opportunities, as well as access to lower hierarchy transport systems. On the other hand, lower hierarchy systems may pose other challenges for distribution of materials and significantly reduce efficiency of humanitarian logistics systems, due to their network properties as well as the status of their connectivity to higher hierarchy systems. The apparent uniqueness of local transport systems, thus introduce challenges in establishing humanitarian logistics chains during and after disasters.

This paper tries to explore whether if different network properties of transport systems pose challenges to humanitarian logistics systems, with respect to different hierarchical levels. The graph theory suggests that transport systems can be identified as a set of links and connections, and thus may also be further divided into a subset of relationships. The literature yet suggests that not only general network properties, but also structure, orientation and shape of network structures may be important. From this perspective, the case of the Thrace Region of Turkey provides an opportunity to study which network properties provide opportunities and problems for humanitarian logistics activities in the possibility of an earthquake, and how a large region’s transport network can be evaluated regarding different hierarchical levels.


Ready for battle: Risk-willingness and character strengths in the face of the unforeseen
Ole Boe, Glenn-Egil Torgersen, Bjoern Eidsvaag, Jan Marius Nilsen
Norwegian Defence University College Norwegian Defence Staff and Command College, 0015, OSLO, Norway

The study examined risk-willingness and character strengths among Norwegian Military Academy (NMA) officer cadets. Risk-willingness is a central attribute in the leadership philosophy mission command which originated in Prussia in the early 17th century. The Norwegian Armed Forces adopted mission command as its central leadership philosophy in the 1990s. Character strengths have been found to be important tin order for military officers to face and thrive in the presence of unforeseen events. The present study compared cadets at the NMA and a random representative group of civilians in order to assess whether risk-willingness is a significant characterization of the military selection. This study uses a quantitative approach where one hundred NMA cadets and one thousand civilians have responded to a questionnaire concerning different types of risk-willingness. The cadets were also given a questionnaire with 24 character strengths and were asked to indicate how important each character strength is for a military officer. The results revealed that the NMA cadets were significantly more willing to take risks along the dimensions physical-, achievement- and existential risk. Along the last dimension, intellectual risk, the results showed no significant differences. Twelve out of 24 character strengths emerged as important for the officer cadets in order to face unforeseen events. These character strengths were in ranked order from the most important: Leadership, integrity, open-mindedness, bravery, citizenship. persistence, social intelligence, love of learning, fairness, self-regulation, perspective, creativity. These results corroborates well with previous research in Norwegian military organizations. An argument is that the significant higher willingness to take risks among NMA cadets compared to civilians should be viewed in context of the Norwegian Army’s participation in international operations for the last 10-15 years. Furthermore, a resulting professionalism has been developed and consequently a more classic warrior-role among Norwegian military leaders has been generated. Moreover, the study argues that the slightly lower willingness to take intellectual risk among the military selection can be explained by a consensus-culture and a demand for conformity in the Norwegian armed forces. The phenomena of risk-willingness cannot easily be measured and the validity of this study must not be exaggerated. Still, supported by other researchers, this study provides valuable knowledge about the future Norwegian army leaders and simultaneously opens up for more extensive research on the topic.


Coping and Caring in the Context of Forest Fire: A Gendered Perspective
Jennifer Hobbins, Ann Enander
Swedish Defense University, 65230, Karlstad, Sweden

In the summer of 2014, a fire devoured almost 14 000 hectares of forest in Mid Sweden. More than one thousand people were evacuated, one person lost his life and another was severely injured, and around 25 buildings were damaged or burnt to the ground. Concerns and worries about the rage, reach and pace of the fire are still highly present in the minds of many affected, and the enormous clouds of smoke, the extreme heat and a remarkable silence are some of the distinct and tangible physical memories many of those affected still recall when looking back upon this natural disaster. Its impact was severe on many people, at the time as well as in the aftermath.

Similar to this description, extreme and major events are depicted through general impressions. However, the perceptions of disaster s vary, for instance among different groups of people, proximity to the event or areas of personal or work-related responsibilities. One group whose experiences and roles in the context of contingencies tend to be largely overlooked is women. In particular, with regard to their efforts concerning caring for children, who are particularly vulnerable and exposed to disasters. Although scholarly interest in the perceptions of women in disasters is increasing, studies in the area are far from exhaustive. Even less attention has been directed towards parenting and caring for children in disasters.

This empirical study thus focuses on women’s experiences of a natural disaster, and how they managed their double roles as affected and carers. Drawing on qualitative interviews with parents, kindergarten teachers and after-school teachers, this paper explores how women understood, made sense of and dealt with the event, and examines their perceptions of the feelings and needs of children in their care, and how these were managed. Such knowledge contributes to understanding womens’ resilience to critical events. 


Preparing for the Big One: disaster risk reduction for persons with morbid obesity
Lesley Gray
University of Otago, Wellington, 6242, Wellington, New Zealand
Joint Centre for Disaster Research (Massey University and GNS Science), 6140, Wellington, New Zealand

The Sendai Framework (UN, 2015) sets out the urgency to anticipate, plan for, and reduce disaster risk globally. Work is required to reduce exposure and vulnerability.  Disaster risk reduction (DRR) approaches need to be broader and more people-centred. Morbid obesity (body mass index > 40) is associated with serious co-morbiditiesand persons with morbid obesity have been identified as a vulnerable population in disasters.

This presents a major concern in NZ and our Maori and Pacific populations are disproportionately represented in statistics for morbid obesity compared with the total population.

A literature scan found no empirical reports of data specific to morbid obesity and disasters. Some accounts of the experience of people with morbid obesity in the aftermath of natural disasters were located. No research relating to DRR as it relates to persons with morbid obesity, DRR and/or emergency management has been conducted in New Zealand.

This presentation will explore issues relating to DRR and morbid obesity and will report on findings to date of this study.


Understanding volcanic risk perception of civil protection agents as a step towards resilience. A study in the Azores.
Isabel Rego 1, 2, Sofia Pereira 1, 2, Mariana Pacheco 1, 2, Armando Mendes 1
1 University of the Azores, 9501-801, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
2 IVAR - Instituto deVolcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos, 9501-801, Ponta Delgada, Portugal

Communities in high-risk areas aim at developing the capacity to prepare for disasters. The Azores, a volcanic archipelago located at the triple junction of tectonic plates and exposed to natural hazards since ever, is no exception (Carmo 2013). Volcanoes have cyclic activity and can be dormant for years. The last major disruptive event occurred in 1957-58 causing a significant socio-economic impact. In S. Miguel island there are three major volcanoes and the maximum distance a person can live away from a volcano is approximately 18 km. In spite of that threat and the official efforts to better cope with disasters, there are still preparedness gaps to be fulfilled (Dibben and Chester 1999). Studies conducted in the Azores revealed weaknesses in risk communication and a lack of a precautionary culture (e.g. Rego and Arroz 2012; Wallenstein et al. 2015).

Knowing that a resilient community is well-informed, capable of meeting its needs, cohesive and connected, this study sought to understand how civil protection agents, involved in disaster management and responsible for societies’ safety in case of a major event, perceive volcanic risk and feel connected to their community. Risk perception seems to be positively related to preparedness (e.g. Lindell and Perry 2000; Martin, Martin and Kent 2009) and successful risk management is obtained by combining local knowledge, perceptions, and technical expertise (Young, 1998). We assume that results from this study can contribute to hazard preparation and to ease the communication among stakeholders, enhancing the community resilience.

Participants were firemen and workers from the Civil Protection, municipalities, the health system, police forces and the army (N=330) in two islands (S. Miguel and Terceira). Data were collected using a self-completion questionnaire on volcanic risk perception and associated variables. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses were used to characterize the sample and analyze the data.

Preliminary results show a lack of hazard knowledge, strong feelings of personal vulnerability, low self-efficacy, and a moderate perception of civil protection forces and the scientific community preparedness to cope with a volcanic event. Nevertheless, the Civil Protection and scientists are the main and the preferred sources of information. Results seem to suggest that a better communication among stakeholders would enhance the link between decision making and practice thus contributing to higher levels of preparedness and resilience.

Wednesday, June 21st - Auditorium #3 - 15:30 - 17:00
Symposium - Risk and development: a Latin America perspective
Risk and development: a Latin America perspective
Sandra Cortes
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Facultad de Medicina. Departamento de Salud Pública, 8330073, Santiago, Chile

Risk analysis is a great tool for helping decision-makers in making decisions about risks.  This tool can be extremely helpful in developing countries, which simultaneously face new risks from the developing process, while still are subjected to more traditional risks.  In this symposium we look at this issue from a Latin American perspective.  While sharing many characteristics, Latin American countries are at different stages of development, and public decision-making processes.  A common characteristic though is that input from academia into the regulatory process is relatively more important than in developed countries, due mainly to the lack of institutions and prepared human capital in the public sector.

We present examples from Argentina, Brazil and Chile that illustrate this situation.  A discussion will follow the presentations. 


Concentration-response functions in air pollution and their impact on regulation in Chile, a rapid economic growth country
Sandra Cortes 1, 2, Antonia Fortt 3, Alejandra Pizarro 1, Bianca Arancibia 3
1 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Facultad de Medicina. Departamento de Salud Pública, 8330073, Santiago, Chile
2 Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases. ACCDiS., 8330073, Santiago, Chile
3 Green River, 7550402, Santiago, Chile

Chile is considered a model for Latin American and Caribbean Countries (LAC) due to its growing development. However, its regulatory processes for air pollutants pose populational high health risks. The comparison of national regulations for particulate matter (PM10-PM2.5) in relation to WHO recommendations and their subsequent estimation of additional case numbers clearly show a significant proportion of the population at risk of becoming ill or dying from these contaminants.

The PM10 standard only considers mortality, setting a value of 150 μg/m3 (mean 24 hrs) and 50 μg/m3 (mean annual), exceeding WHO recommendations. WHO recognizes short and long-term impacts[1]. Thus for short-term exposure to PM2.5 it proposed risk indicators (RR 95% CI) for every 10 μg/m3 of 1,023 (1.0045-1.02) for all-cause mortality, 1.0091 (1.0017-1.016) for cardiovascular hospital admissions and 1.019 (0.99-1.04) for respiratory causes. For PM10 (mean daily) asthma incidence is proposed of 1.028 (1.006-1.051). For long term exposure of PM2.5 (mean annual) a RR of 1.062  (1.04-1.08) is proposed for total mortality; for PM10 mean annual, an RR of 1.04 (1.02-1.07) for postneonatal mortality, prevalence of bronchitis in children (6 to 12 years) 1.08 (0.98 -1.19) and incidence of Bronchitis (>18 years of 1.17 (1.04-1.19) are proposed.

It is estimated in Chile that the number of cases of mortality and morbidity attributable to actual levels of air pollution in Chile is underestimated in regulatory processes. This scenario is expected in several countries in LAC exposed as Chile to PM10 and PM2.5[2]. It is proposed to review new functions over other cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases and to improve the quality of indicators for estimating the burden of disease attributable to short and long-term exposure particulate matter and the subsequent regulatory processes in LAC [3].

[1] WHO 2013. Health risks of air pollution in Europe – HRAPIE project. Available in: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/air-quality/publications/2013/health-risks-of-air-pollution-in-europe-hrapie-project.-recommendations-for-concentrationresponse-functions-for-costbenefit-analysis-of-particulate-matter,-ozone-and-nitrogen-dioxide. Accessed January 28th 2017

 [2] Riojas-Rodríguez H, da Silva AS, Texcalac-Sangrador JL, Moreno-Banda GL. Air pollution management and control in Latin America and the Caribbean: implications for climate change. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2016 Sep;40(3):150-159.

[3] Burnett RT, Pope CA 3rd, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR, Smith KR, Balmes JR, Bruce NG, Kan H, Laden  F, Prüss-Ustün A, Turner MC, Gapstur SM, Diver WR, Cohen A. An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Apr;122(4):397-403. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1307049. 


São Paulo a Brazilian illustration of a risk society.
Cintia Okamura
CETESB - Environmental Agency of the State of São Paulo, 04363-040, Sao Paulo, Brazil

The spectacular development of environmental risks in the contemporary societies was analysed by Ulrich Beck, who proposed the notion of risk society underlining that contemporary risks are not coming only from outside (natural disasters) but generated by the society itself. A Brazilian example, focus on a relevant illustration of theses by Ulrich Beck that can be presented in São Paulo and its Metropolitan Region. For example, how the legacy of a past industrial activity contributed today to about 2000 contaminated sited in São Paulo city and 5400 in São Paulo state. Another example refers to the reality of urbanization contoured by an uneven development planning, producing the multiplication of slums and irregular settlements and in consequence, environmental degradation. Therefore, without proper house policy, more than 2 million inhabitants in the metropolitan region live in these irregular settlements, exposed to an unprecedented combination of many risks. To address this scenario, a São Paulo State Agency was created to deal with environmental issues (CETESB) that constitutes in an observatory of risky society. Analysing CETESB’s track over almost 50 years, we observe that it has met the “demands” of a risk society (critical episodes related to pollution and environmental accidents), factor that has boosted its own development: environmental monitoring network, control actions and environmental preservation, academic research and setting of standards. Thus, CETESB has improved its actions by developing tools, methods and techniques, but in terms of biophysical aspect neglecting anthropic aspect, it has resulted in situations of inability and mismatch in dealing with the population, especially those involving emergency and environmental risk, creating, most of the time, conflicts among the actors involved. This underlines the urgent need of an ample conception of the environment that integrates the human being, meaning quitting the purely objective conception of the environment, reduced to a biophysical reality. In order to cope with this situation, we will present our propositions to develop complementary knowledge to that is set up by the responsible institutions concerning risk management, such as CETESB. This way, we have tested and developed methodologies to analyse, reveal and value the experience of the population exposed in order to improve a risk culture favouring the inclusion of human factors on action planning of risk management.


Enterprise risk and resilience analysis for innovative container-port information systems
Vidal Melo 1, Jessica Lin 2, Alexandra Z. Marinangelo 1, Thomas L. Polmateer 2, Eduardo Mario Dias 1, James H. Lambert 2
1 University of Sao Paulo, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, Brazil
2 University of Virginia, 22903, Charlottesville, United States

For an innovative logistics technology, this presentation will introduce quantitative analysis and evidence of the reduction of enterprise risk to schedule, cost, and performance of the movement of products through a container port. Schedule, cost, and performance losses are a source of risk to global supply chains. Brazil loses roughly R$160 billion attributed to logistics problems, of which less than 10% is due to lack of infrastructure at ports. The Brazil Ministry of Agriculture uses antiquated information systems of imports/exports, which hinders the competitiveness of Brazil in a global market. An emerging cloud-based platform (known as SIGVIG3) introduces a machine-to-machine communication between several actors in the process and expedites the movement of containerized products at marine port terminals at relatively low cost. The platform can integrate the actors related to export processes, including exporters, brokers, government agencies, importers, terminals, ship operators, etc and accelerates container inspection at the ports, as historical data and the traceability provided by the integration can allow regulatory/government resources to be allocated more effectively. Digital certificates and encrypted communication also serve to create accountability, reliability, and resilience of the supply chain. Manufacturers began adding RFID electronic seals to containers after they are loaded. The RFID seals associate the physical world with an electronic documentation that the exporters transmit to the regulatory/government agency based on a machine-to-machine concept. All the actors related to that process can interact with the RFID chip and create electronic events, such as the reception of a container by a terminal. Government agencies virtually check all of the dependencies necessary to complete the process, and enable security and customs processes to occur even before the container leaves the facility or concurrently with the transportation of the container from factory to port. Data gathered over the three field case studies suggest that the supply chain of meat exports can be shortened by 57 hours, on average, when the SIGVIG3 system is utilized. Compared to the additional refrigeration costs when problems arise due to non-compliant documentation, the cost of this technology will be small and bring significant unburdening of the traditional supply chain. This presentation should be of wide interest to practitioners of risk and resilience management in large-scale systems involving infrastructure, workforce, regulation, natural and human-induced disruptions, information systems, cloud technologies, and transportation and freight security.


Identifying heuristics to investigate risk perception of a rural community
Joelma Santos Araújo 1, ZENITH DELABRIDA 1, Carolina Seixas Rocha 1, Katiane Santos Costa 1, Flávia de Ávila 2
1 Federal University of Sergipe Departament of Psychology, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, Brazil
2 Federal University of Sergipe Departament of International Affairs, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, Brazil

Small communities in a rural area deal with the effect of the political system in a specific way. The financial support that the municipality should offer to them depends on the internal organization of the community to pressure and to demand what should be a right. The focus of this study is a Brazilian rural community that produces the cashew nut. The procedure used to make a tasteful cashew nut causes pollution and consequently can cause damage to community’s health and environment. Therefore, this economic activity offers socioeconomic risks because makes the community dependent on individuals who buy the cashew nut to sell in the cities. It was developed a questionnaire to inquire what kind of choices the participants would do to investigating if it could be possible to identify cognitive bias related to community issues. It was interviewed 69 (6,9% of the population) inhabitants, a slight majority of women (57%) with the mean age of 36,10 (SD=16,76) years-old. The results showed that for collective choices the issue should be related to leisure/art, infrastructure, education, and health. But when the issue deals with politics, economic affairs, children, drugs, house, and security the decision is based on the individual impact even it is a community problem and what is more valued is related to health and infrastructure. The results indicate that collective and individual choices play an important role in the way to address the community problems can be biased. It is discussed how the data can help to understand the risk situation of the community and which strategies should be used to increase their quality of life.


Working on the street: the risks faced by sex workers
Tatiane Alves Rodrigues Rocha, Tainara Ferreira Inocêncio, Sâmara Batista Militão, Luiz Augusto Santos Costa, ZENITH DELABRIDA
FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF SERGIPE, 49035-810, Aracaju, Brazil

Professionals working on the streets in an informal situation face specific risks. It is estimated that 40% of the Brazilian population work informally, which implies few risk management through public policies. The present study investigated the risks reported by sex workers in the streets of a Brazilian capital. This group of workers historically suffers from violence, social stigmas and little recognition of their work as a profession. In turn, the literature has traditionally focused on health aspects. Despite its importance, these data only partially aid risk management for this group. Therefore, it is important to measure the risks reported by the sex workers as well as the strategies for its management. To achieve these objectives, structured interviews were conducted with 43 female sex workers with the mean age of 28.56 (SD = 8.67) years old and the mean of 9.52 (SD = 8.64) years of work. They work in the street (40%), in houses for prostitution (40%) and in both places (20%). The interview questionnaire addressed the perceived risks related to safety and violence in workplace measured by a Likert 5-point (never-ever) scale, information about strategies for dealing with work risks and demographic data. In general, sex workers never or almost never feel safe in their workplace (m = 1.82; SD = 1.14). Working in houses of prostitution (m = 3.66; SD = 1.35) is reported safer than working on the street (m = 1.95; SD = 1.22) and the difference was statistically significant (t = -6,254; p = 0.00). The frequency of psychological assaults on the street is higher (m = 2.35; SD = 1.53) than in the houses of prostitution (m = 1.69; SD = 1.22) in the same way as the reported frequency of physical aggressions in the street appears to be higher (m = 2.00; SD = 1.23) than in the houses of prostitution (m = 1.83; SD = 1.36) but the difference was not statistically significant. The violence that is practice primarily by clients (40%) and by passers-by (40%) is managed by strategies divided into anticipatory strategy (steel, work close to police, having an intimidating posture) and situation strategy (talking, not offering resistance, praying). It can be concluded that it is a profession with a high risk of violence. It is discussed how difficult is to have access to this population and what strategies should be developed to decrease the violence.

Wednesday, June 21st - Room #1 - 15:30 - 17:00
Parallel Sessions - Resilience, decision-making and uncertainty II
Time Bandits and Risk Managers: The Epistemic Calamity of Neglecting Temporal Goals
Zachary A. Collier, James H. Lambert
University of Virginia, 22904, Charlottesville, United States

Risk analysis enables policy decisions and allocations of resources across diverse topics. The temporal dimension and time horizons are critical to comparative risk analysis.  Yet risk theory and methodology too often miss them. There has of course been progress quantifying the cost of recovery and time to recovery in resilience analysis. Where widely-used tools of project scheduling, including CPM and PERT, are able to incorporate probabilistic scheduling data, they are generally limited by vague estimates of most-likely, optimistic, and pessimistic task durations, or they neglect the time horizons entirely. While progress has been made to how the uncertainty in project scheduling is handled, there is still a key gap between the identification and assessment of risks affecting a project and the consequences of those risks on schedule. Risk managers must participate in scheduling (in acquisition, construction, testing, …) to address the variety of threats, including disruptive events associated with climate, markets, economics, technology, demographics, behaviors, and other emergent conditions. This presentation will develop theory and methodology that explicitly link disruptive emergent and future conditions with disruptions to project schedule. With the variety of uncertainties affecting scheduling in large-scale systems, a principled and repeatable consideration of emergent and future conditions related to these factors is needed. Several examples in infrastructure systems will be used to demonstrate scenario-based preference analysis with Gantt-type project scheduling, where the influence on task priority and durations is assessed across a selection of real-world emergent and future conditions. The examples show how a schedule can become resilient to particular disruptions, and how schedule resilience can be improved.


“Branch and Bound” approach to risk management, pointing towards a balanced compromise between risk perception and real-time scenarios
Kari Dakakni
ISU, 50011, Ames, United States

There is considerable evidence that culture influences organization, and organization behaviour influences system safety, in terms of decision taken, risk perception, choices, actions, and outcomes.

Despite the acknowledgement of it, there is a penury of understanding involved on how this behaviour may affect the overall organizational capacity to recover different forms of disruption. In other terms, how the behaviour affects the organization resilience.

The development of socio-technical models are linked with the recognition that physical components are usually assumed reliable, because they correspond to certain specifications and requirements within the system in which they are allocated. An extension of this characteristic beyond the component itself, in a context of the whole, would lead either to a mistake. In fact, safety is a property of the system and its effectiveness is determined by a realistic risk assessment, which comprehends, besides the design of the physical components, the social interdependencies, as primary foundation of organizational factors and adaptation. The focus of this paper is to evaluate how in this complex scenario, the allotted time to select and prioritize relevant information, would impact an effective decision making.

In this effort, perception and heuristics enable to gather faster the significant data. However, the lack of the necessary due time to spend for analysing the complexity of the data, generates distorted overviews.

Further to embrace a proactive approach without falling into anachronistic conflict determined by the use of model based on accidents dynamics shaped by technologies of the past, a branch and bound method, incorporating stochastic simulation, has been developed. The purpose is to capture the interactions among the tripod, risk perception, risk consequences (resilience), and risk information within a portfolio in respect of the time spent for decision making process and risk abatement efforts. The paper contribution is to evaluate a realistic scenario in risk management to pointing towards a balanced compromise between perception and real-time scenarios with the specified weighted variables of the tripod described to improve system safety.


Risk Communication and Governance: Learning from Major Disasters
Isabel Santos 1, Lia Vasconcelos 1, Iva Pires 2
1 MARE NOVA – FCT/UNL- Department of Science and Environmental Engineering. Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia - Nova University. Portugal Quinta da Torre, Campus Universitário, 2829-516, Caparica, Portugal
2 CICS.NOVA – FCSH/UNL – Department of Sociology. Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas - Nova University. Portugal Av. de Berna, 26C, 1069-06, Lisboa, Portugal

Human society faces a multitude of hazards of diverse nature, characterized by different levels of complexity, uncertainty, for being timeless and extending its effects globally. These causes disruption and negative impacts in the social structure of communities, on human health and on the natural environment and urban heritage.

There is a growing awareness and need to respond to these situations. The state of the art refers that risk communication and governance mechanisms are a supporting tool to deal responsibly with risks, empowering citizens to better deal with risk in their lives. However, the scientific literature also reveals multiple concepts and approaches, being not consensual on the risk concept or its perception by different stakeholders, and as a consequence lacking on reaching preparedness or response capacity of communities facing a disaster.

Assuming that it is possible to draw learning lessons from the analysis of disaster case studies leading to better preparation of people in order to cope responsibly with the risks, we analyzed three case studies on natural and technological risks. The major events are hurricane Katrina (USA), L’aquila earthquake (Italy) and Japan’s triple disaster, where we looked for evidences regarding the meaning of these events to those who lived them, and analyze the way in which the risk was communicated, by whom, and in what stage of the catastrophe; additionally, what impact the risk communication and governance had on the behavior of the affected populations, which lessons can be used in future situations on how to proceed and behave facing disaster events, and what to avoid in order to minimize the risk of the affected populations.

The results of the comparative analysis of these three major events reveal a general inability to unforeseen and deal with major events. In all of the case studies there were conflicts of interest, ineffective governance, phenomena of corruption, concealment of information, inadequate risk communication, serious failures, false security transmission and a general inability to conceive worst-case scenario, leading to a general loss of confidence and especially in the case of L’Aquila and Japan, global consequences, in science and nuclear energy respectively.

The main conclusions reveals that the implementation of mechanisms of risk communication and governance constitute support instruments to help deal responsibly with risks, being a serious support on the effective construction of collective knowledge, essential to ensure the maturity of citizens and the responsiveness of entities facing the occurrence of risk.


A Maturity Model for Risk Management
Diogo Proença 1, 2, João Estevens 2, Ricardo Vieira 1, 2, José Borbinha 1, 2
1 INESC-ID, 1000-029, Lisbon, Portugal
2 Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001, Lisbon, Portugal

Risk is the effect of uncertainty on the achievement of objectives. Therefore, all organizations are subject to risk and uncertainty, and the need to manage risk in a structured way is increasingly recognized. Risk management consists of "coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with respect to risk". Often, organizations use different risk management practices and do not always do so in a systematic way. In order to help organizations manage risk more efficiently, a number of risk management structures have been created. One of them, ISO 31000 is recognized as a consensual reference, which has influenced some organizations that develop risk management structures to review their work in order to be in line with ISO 31000. ISO 31000 is comprehensive and can be used in all industries and for all types of risk, regardless of their nature. Consequently, this reference does not prescribe a risk management system, merely supporting and integrating risk management into the overall management system of an organization. The implementation of the risk management process is not always easy and some organizations give up without achieving the desired outcomes. This may be due to the fact that they are unable to carry out the risk management process in a consistent and predictable way over time.

Maturity models are tools that represents a path towards an increasingly organized and systematic way of doing business which usually involve people, organizations, and processes. There has been a great popularization of these tools in the last years through the use of maturity models in several domains, for example: data management, information security, and project management. In maturity models, the evolutionary path is described through discrete stages, to reach the next level it is necessary to achieve the objectives of the desired level and all previous levels.

This communication presents a maturity model for the risk management process. For the implementation of the model to be possible, it is necessary to assess the risk management process of organizations. Considering risk management is a process, ISO15504 will be used, which establishes how the assessment of a process should be carried out. This maturity model allows organizations to assess a risk management process according to best practice defined in risk management references. The maturity model can also be used as a reference for improving this process since it sets a clear path of how a risk management process should be performed. This work was supported by national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) with reference UID/CEC/50021/2013.


Uncertainties, decision criteria and resilience to damage and failure of a heat exchanger
Pertti Auerkari 1, Satu Tuurna 1, Antti Tuhti 1, Rami Pohja 1, Ulla McNiven 2, Leila Laaksonen 2
1 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FI-02044, Espoo, Finland
2 Fortum Power and Heat Oy, 02150, Espoo, Finland

Risk-based inspection (RBI) is now routine in some industries (and regions) but not in others. The differences mostly originate from the variation in the regulatory environment, perceived risk associated with the given equipment or process, and available resources, but may also arise from the inertia of established technical tradition. Even less common is assessment of resilience to damage, failures or other unwanted incidents. Tube-and-shell heat exchangers are common across many industries, but more frequently subjected to RBI in chemical industry and refineries than in conventional power plants. In this work we consider a district heat exchanger of a power plant from the points of view of inspections, maintenance, risk of in-service failure (leak) to result in unplanned shutdown, and resilience to damage and failure as seen from the available data. The practices and criteria of inspection and maintenance planning and execution have been evaluated using the inspection and failure data from one life cycle, which is the time between periods of refurbishment (retubing), spanning in this case about 13 years and six inspections. The case was selected on the basis of sustained annual mode of operation and consistent inspection history, with the same inspection service provider using the same (ultrasonic) inspection technique. The inspection data was used to assess the evolving probability of wall thinning to critical decision levels or failure. The results indicate that although the heat exchanger tubes suffer from uneven growth rates of in-service damage, the dominating damage mechanism of external erosion-corrosion has remained similar throughout the service history. As the severely loaded tubes have shortest life, inspections concentrate on these (less than 1000) tubes that during the life cycle of the heat exchanger will be increasingly plugged to prevent in-service leaks. The applied plugging criteria are shown to be appropriate and inspections sufficient to indicate the stages of failure risk acceleration and need for refurbishment. The implications for the main phases of resilience to damage and failure are discussed for the application.         

Wednesday, June 21st - Room #2 - 15:30 - 17:00
Parallel Sessions - New methods, tools, data in risk & resilience research IV
Concerns in everyday life or abstract concerns? The utility of frequency measures of risk perception.
Christoph Boehmert 1, Frederik Freudenstein 2, 3, 4, 5, Rodney Croft 2, 3, 4, Peter Wiedemann 2
1 Department of Science Communication, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131, Karlsruhe, Germany
2 School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Wollongong, Australia
3 Australian Centre for Electromagnetic Bioeffects Research, NH&MRC Centre of Research Excellence, NSW 2522, Wollongong, Australia
4 Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, NSW 2522, Wollongong, Australia
5 Centre for Population Population Health Research on Electromagnetic Energy, Monash University, VIC 3800, Melbourne, Australia

What is considered as ‘dangerous’ or ‘risky’ by the public is of great relevance for risk management and policy-making. Researchers have traditionally measured risk perception with one or more closed questions like ‘How dangerous do you think X is?’ or ‘How worried/concerned are you about X?’ However, these closed risk perception questions have been criticised. In a comparison with qualitative data, Zwick (2005) and Gaskell et al. (2016) both argue that closed questions overestimate the ‘true’ level of perceived risk. Gray et al. (2008) compared closed questions with a question about the frequency with which people worried about crime. In that study the percentage of people who said they have been worrying frequently about crimes was much lower than the percentage that reported worry on the closed question.

The current study aims at distinguishing people who are concerned about electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from technical devices from concerned people who actually think about the issue frequently (thematic relevance, Schütz 1982). The approach is similar to that of Gray and colleagues, however, in contrast to that study, we did not only compare the closed question with a frequency question, but tried to distinguish groups through the use of both questions. Data from two general population surveys in Europe (N = 1995) and Australia (N = 1744) are reported.

Participants were categorised as concerned if they indicated their ‘concern about the potential health effects of EMFs’ was higher than the scale midpoint. Participants were categorised as frequently thinking about EMFs and health if they indicated a frequency higher than the scale midpoint on a scale ranging from ‘never’ to ‘very often’. While according to the closed questions 44% (Europe) and 54% (Australia) were (rather) concerned, only 13% and 11%, respectively, indicated they were concerned and thought about EMFs and health often or very often. Concerned people frequently thinking about the issue significantly differed from the mean of only concerned people in a variety of EMF-related beliefs and judgements, such as subjective exposure, emotional and moral judgements of exposure situations, and scariness of base stations.

The findings suggest that assessing the frequency of thinking about a risk can identify distinct subsets of concerned people. The results should be replicated in other risk areas. Furthermore, differences between the subgroups should be further investigated. For instance, the study of potential differences in the reception of risk communication could yield results that are relevant for risk management.


Spatio-temporal population modelling as an improved exposure component for an integrated risk assessment – the case of South Tyrol
Kathrin Renner, Stefan Schneiderbauer, Christian Kofler, Fabio Pruß
eurac research, 39100, Bolzano, Italy

The management of risk to sudden natural, technological or man-made hazards needs to consider potential harm to people. Commonly, the available information about exposed population is static as it is based on night-time residential locations. People, however, are mobile, and therefore their potential presence in a hazard zone is a function of time and space (Smith, A., 2015, Bhaduri et al., 2007, Martin et al., 2015). The objective of this work is to improve risk assessments to sudden hazards by developing high-resolution population data for different points in time for the area of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (South Tyrol). The work was carried out with support of the local Civil Protection authorities.

The study area of South Tyrol is a mountainous region located in the Alps in northeast Italy. Because of its steep terrain the entire region is prone to natural hazards, such as landslides, floods, rockfalls and avalanches. In a daily cycle, people commute from their places of residence to their workplaces in regional centres. In an annual cycle, there are significant differences and peaks in the presence of people due to tourism and seasonal foreign workers employed in the agricultural sector.

In this research, we used a bespoke software developed by the University of Southampton. Using Surfacebuilder 247, we modelled population distribution in the study area at 100m resolution for representative times over the day and the year. We populated the model with residence-, workplace-, education-, health- and leisure- location information. Based on literature review and experts opinion we determined capacities, time profiles and catchment areas for each of these locations. The results are visualised within a Geo Information System and represent the variations of population’s mobility at selected times and dates. We integrated this improved exposure layer into a so far static risk assessment related to a potential dam-outburst flood in a mountain valley (municipalitiy of Prad am Stilfserjoch/Prato allo Stelvio). The results show significant variations in the risk of harm to people for different times over the day and over the year. The product can contribute to improved risk management by the civil protection but also to an improved spatial planning and traffic management.


Relative Risk Assessment of meals redistribution for human consumption - Case study
Adriana Carmo, Telmo Nunes
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Lisbon, 1300-477, Lisbon, Portugal

Food waste has a significant environmental, economic and social impact. When it´s not possible to reduce this waste, re-use of food through secondary markets or giving to the most vulnerable members of society should be promoted (FAO, 2013).

The present study aimed to characterize the process of reuse of meals and to develop a quantitative model of relative risk analysis associated to the process.

Meal temperature data were collected from donation to consumption using data logger and consumer data surveys. Based on growth models and dose-response curves available in the literature, and fixed initial concentrations, the growth of Salmonella, Stapylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes was modeled and relative risks were calculated at times of meal collection and consumption.

The mean relative risk was 1.30; 1.27 and 1.02 at collection and 1.25; 1.57 and 1.04 at the 1st consumption, respectively for Salmonella, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. Considering a control of the process in its preparation phase (maximum 1h at 10ºC), it was possible to reduce the relative risk at the collection to 1.06; 1.11 and 1.0.

The risk associated with the meal reuse process can be reduced through a better control of the storage temperatures in the mediating institutions and the awareness of the beneficiaries to improve the conservation and consumption within the established period.


Governing new type of hazardous waste: looking for the place for post-fracking fluids in Poland
Agata Stasik 1, Aleksandra Lis 2
1 Ko?mi?ski University, 03-301, Warszawa, Poland
2 Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614, Pozna?, Poland

Licenses for shale gas exploration in Poland have been issued since 2007, reaching its peak in 2012 (over 100), to drop to only 27 in December 2016. The highest number of drills was performed in 2012 (24) but it dropped to 7 in 2015. Then, once the global oil and gas prices sunk in 2015, shale gas exploration were no more economically attractive for companies, and these projects  disappeared from their portfolios. Despite this downward trend, the number of wells (72) is still higher in Poland than in any other European country. Thus, it constitutes an interesting case for the investigation of institutional responses to challenges of governance of shale gas exploration.

We are going to focus on the environmental public agencies’ struggles to classify – and thus, make manageable – post-fracking waste. Both experts and environmental activists identified safe disposal of waste produced in the process of hydraulic fracturing as one of the most serious concerns in terms of risks for the environment and human health. In Poland, reported by the media cases of negligent waste disposal  into rivers or abandoned fields made local activists more aware of this risks. However, so far, the environmental agencies did not make the decision to classify as industrial or communal waste. This classification is crucial for the stable and standardized procedures of waste disposal.

At the same time, the rigorous procedures regarding waste disposal may significantly raise the costs of the process of gas production and even render the investment unprofitable. Thus, the foreknowledge about the procedures and regulations is needed both for the public and the companies. What is more, the division of costs of waste disposal between the corporation and the public institutions is one of the important part of the “social contract”, deciding about the share of risks, costs and benefits between the state, local community, and the firm.

Basing on the analysis of interviews with experts and administration officials about post-fracking waste, we are going to present what challenges they faced to inscribe post-fracking waste in bureaucratic system of waste governance in Poland. Additionally, we are going to reflect on the consequences of this “organized irresponsibility” for the dynamic of communication between stakeholders, i.e. company representatives, local communities representatives, and public administration.

Wednesday, June 21st - Foyer - 15:30 - 17:00
Parallel Sessions - Risk analysis, management & governance II
Enhancing the resilience of children and young persons in a risky world
David Ball, John Watt, Victoria de Rijke
Middlesex University, NW4 4BT, London, United Kingdom

Children and young persons face a risky world from birth. How best to enhance their personal resilience and survival skills? Although rarely discussed in mainstream risk literature, this has been a topic of considerable controversy with apparently large variability in attitudes to children's risk exposure across Europe and beyond. The importance of raising capable and resilient children is of course self evident (Sandseter and Kennair, 2011).

In the UK this conflict led in 1993 to the creation of a multi-actor body known as the Play Safety Forum (PSF, 1993), which has sought to promote a balanced approach to children's play. The PSF comprises a consortium of the four UK national play agencies, safety and child welfare organisations, and other agencies with interests in children and play including industry and standards-setting bodies. Major achievements include the publication of 'Managing risk in play provision' (PSF, 2008a), 'Design for play' (PSF, 2008b) and the introduction of risk-benefit assessment (PSF, 2015), the latter as a means of safeguarding what some regard as the essential and unavoidably risky elements of play.

This paper will describe the history of these developments before discussing current challenges. In particular, the PSF has recently been concerned by proposals to rewrite or modify international Standards on play safety as promulgated by the ASTM in the USA and CEN in Europe in relation to surfacing requirements for fixed equipment, unsupervised, outdoor locations. Although this can involve highly technical considerations, playground standards on issues such as surfacing requirements do have major public policy implications for play provision both directly, through their significant cost implications and their sometimes detrimental effects on children and teenagers' play experiences, and indirectly,  via their inherent philosophical leanings (Ball, 2004).

Policy decisions should, of course, incorporate technical considerations, but also need to be sensitive to the wider aims  and needs, in this case of developing children. This undoubtedly requires a multi-stakeholder approach drawing on expertise from widely different domains ranging over engineering, trauma, child development and health, with inputs from the social and natural sciences.


Enabling domain-specific silos in integrated Enterprise Risk Management
Ricardo Vieira 1, 2, Diogo Proença 1, 2, José Borbinha 1, 2
1 INESC-ID, 1000-029, Lisboa, Portugal
2 Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal

Risk management is a process that involves multiple stakeholders with different concerns, meaning the concepts, techniques and practices suitable for its application have a strong dependency from the context of problem. Accordingly, in a first moment that lead to a proliferation of specialized frameworks defining how risk management should be established and implemented in specific domains, and therefore privileging specific viewpoints and views. The diversity of contexts and the proliferation of domain-specific knowledge created several fragmented views of risk with different languages, parametrizations, and metrics. This known “silos reality” can be a problem in scenarios where several risk reports, each rich in its own domain-specific risk management concepts, have to be analysed for a common purpose (such as, for example, addressing strategic issues). In other words, despite the efforts of defining common risk management concepts to be used in different domains, risk management tends to operate in silos with narrowly focused, functionally driven, and disjointed focus. We address this problem, proposing a solution based on a risk management ontology. This ontology was built considering the main frameworks such as ISO31000, ISO27005 and Risk IT, and we demonstrate how it can be used as part of a process to facilitate the harmonization of risk management information originally produced in different silos. This work was supported by national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) with reference UID/CEC/50021/2013.


Discourses of Humanitarian Logistics
Seda Kundak, Eda Beyazit, Mete Basar Baypinar, Huseyin Murat Celik, Yucel Torun, Stella Maria Gkika, Yasin Sezer Turk
Istanbul Technical University, 34437, Istanbul, Turkey

Humanitarian logistics enables delivering and warehousing of critical supplies to facilitate disaster relief activities. The main difference of humanitarian logistics from regular logistics operations is that procurement, delivery, storage and need of disaster areas embody uncertainty due to the size and the characteristic features of the crisis. The Sumatra Earthquake in 2004 and The Haiti Earthquake in 2010 have been milestones in humanitarian logistics literature and practice, to look further on success and failure conditions of humanitarian logistics operations. Even though humanitarian logistics performs in response and recovery phases of risk management cycle, its efficiency depends on strategies developed in preparedness phase. Therefore, humanitarian logistics background shares common keywords to define resilience such as redundancy, networks, flexibility, rapid response etc.

The aim of this study is to explore factors associated with the efficiency of humanitarian logistics activities by discourse analysis, using interviews and declarations of different stakeholders in the aftermath of disastrous events. The research has been conducted on selected newspapers and broadcasts in Turkish and English. The results show similarities in the speech of victims and relief organizations by the means of failure in communication and late response. On the other hand, the discourse of decision makers and authorities depends on economic and political situation of the country.


Increasing preparedness at individual and community level
Jose Kerstholt 1, 2, Hanneke Duijnhoven 1
1 TNO, 3769 ZG, Soesterberg, Netherlands
2 University of Twente, 7500 AE, Enschede, Netherlands

Several societal trends underscore the need for preventing and mitigating the impact of hazards by making communities more resilient. Worldwide, the interaction between factors such as population growth, urban developments and natural hazards has underpinned the growing incidence of disasters. At the same time, the recognition of people’s role in increasing the risks posed by natural hazards, has fueled the belief that safety should not be the sole responsibility of professionals but of citizens as well. Despite the fact that many countries encourage their citizens to prepare for disaster, the results of those efforts are quite discouraging. I will present the results of two studies that aimed at increasing preparedness at both individual and community level.

The goal of the first study was to examine whether the multi-level variables (at individual, community and institutional level) as distinguished by the Community Engagement Theory of Douglas Paton (2008) could account for the variance in flood preparedness of 629 Dutch citizens resident in The Hague (an area below sea level). Overall, the results point to the need to address both cognition and affect in communicating risks and to make better use of social networks in facilitating citizen preparedness for hazards.

In the second study, workshops were conducted as a method of facilitating resilience awareness. Participatory workshops can be used to facilitate a “bottom-up” approach, with the aims of raising awareness and increasing the likelihood of resilient behaviours being adopted. We used the CART methodology (Pfefferbaum et al., 2013) which distinguishes a range of participatory methods including an assessment survey, community ecological maps, stakeholder analysis a SWOT analysis and vulnerability assessment. Eight workshops were held in Scotland in both rural and urban communities. The overall result is that members of communities became more aware of their own vulnerabilities and capabilities, both at the individual and collective level, encouraging action as to increase their resilience.